Related concepts

Ansaris (Ansars)

Ansaris is a group of Shia born in the 21st century, they believe in Ahmad Hasan is the messenger of the 12th imam, the Yemeni a character expected by the prophecies of the Shia twelever and the first Mahdi of twelve Mahdis, he is in charge of preparing the arrival of Imam Mahdi, the mame Ansars mean supporters of Imam Mahdi or supporters of God, this new religious movement has many followers in Najaf, Iraq and a small percentage around the world.[citation needed]

Islamism

Islamism is a term that refers to a set of political ideologies, derived from various fundamentalist views, which hold that Islam is not only a religion but a political system that should govern the legal, economic and social imperatives of the state. Many Islamists do not refer to themselves as such and it is not a single particular movement. Religious views and ideologies of its adherents vary, and they may be Sunni Islamists or Shia Islamists depending upon their beliefs. Islamist groups include groups such as Al-Qaeda, the organizer of the September 11, 2001 attacks and perhaps the most prominent; and the Muslim Brotherhood, the largest and perhaps the oldest. Although violence is often employed by some organizations, most Islamist movements are nonviolent.

Movements

Salafi movement

The teachings of the reformer Abd Al-Wahhab are more often referred to by adherents as Salafi, that is, “following the forefathers of Islam.” This branch of Islam is often referred to as “Wahhabi,” a term that many adherents to this tradition do not use. Members of this form of Islam call themselves Muwahhidun (“Unitarians”, or “unifiers of Islamic practice.[76] Salafism is a puritanical and legalistic Islamic movement and is the dominant creed in Saudi Arabia. Salafi sect[77] Salafism is a group who believe themselves the only correct interpreters of the Koran and consider moderate Muslims to be infidels; seek to convert all Muslims and to insure that its own fundamentalist version of Islam will dominate the world.[78] Traditional Sunni Sufis who are in opposition of the movement classified it as movement of only thirty years old, is the modern outgrowth of an two-century old heresy spawned by a scholar of the Najd area in the Eastern part of the Arabian peninsula by the name of Muhammad ibn `Abd al- Wahhab.[79] Most of the violent terrorist groups come from Salafi movement and their sub groups. In recent years, the Salafi doctrine has often been correlated with the jihad of terrorist organizations such as Al Qaeda and those groups in favor of killing innocent civilians.[80][81][82]

Other Salafi groups

Wahhabism

Wahhabi movement is recently revived by the 18th century teacher Sheikh Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab in the Arabian peninsula, and was instrumental in the rise of the House of Saud to power. The terms “Wahhabi movement” and “Salafism” are often used interchangeably, although the word “Wahhabi” is specific for followers of Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab. The works of scholars like Ibn Taymiyya, Ibn al Qayyim and Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab are used for religious guidance. [83] Critics claim that Muslim Terrorism is the direct offshoot of the fanatical Islamic cult known as Wahabism, which runs Mecca and believes in the destruction of non Islamic cultures and is financed by Saudi Arabia.[84]

Ahl al-Hadith

The Ahl al-Hadith is a movement started in the mid-nineteenth century in Northern India. It refers to the adherent’s belief that they are not bound by taqlid (as are Ahl al-Rai, literally “the people of rhetorical theology”), but consider themselves free to seek guidance in matters of religious faith and practices from the authentic hadith which, together with the Qur’an, are in their view the principal worthy guide for Muslim.[85][86] Followers call themselves as Ahl al-Hadith or Salafi. The term Ahl al-Hadith is often used interchangeably with the term Wahhabi,[87] or as a branch of the latter movement,[88][89] though the movement itself claims to be distinct from Wahhabism.[90]

Political movements

Al-Ikhwan Al-Muslimun

The Al-Ikhwan Al-Muslimun, or Muslim Brotherhood, is an organisation that was founded by Egyptian scholar Hassan al-Banna, a graduate of Dar al-Ulum. With its various branches, it is the largest Sunni movement in the Arab world, and an affiliate is often the largest opposition party in many Arab nations. The Muslim Brotherhood is not concerned with theological differences, accepting Muslims of any of the four Sunni schools of thought. It is the world’s oldest and largest Islamist group. Its aims are to re-establish the Caliphate and in the mean time push for more Islamisation of society. The Brotherhood’s stated goal is to instill the Qur’an and sunnah as the “sole reference point for… ordering the life of the Muslim family, individual, community… and state”.[citation needed]

Jamaat-e-Islami

The Jamaat-e-Islami is an Islamist political party in the Indian Subcontinent. It was founded in Lahore, British India, by Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi in 1941 and is the oldest religious party in Pakistan and India. Today, sister organizations with similar objectives and ideological approaches exist in India (Jamaat-e-Islami Hind), Bangladesh (Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh), Kashmir (Jamaat-e-Islami Kashmir),and Sri Lanka, and there are “close brotherly relations” with the Islamist movements and missions “working in different continents and countries”, particularly those affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood or Akhwan-al-Muslimeen. The JI envisions an Islamic government in Pakistan and Bangladesh governing by Islamic law. It opposes Westernization—including capitalism, socialism, or such practices as bank interest, and favours an Islamic economic order and Caliphate.[citation needed]

Jamaat-al-Muslimeen

The Jamaat ul-Muslimeen is a movement in Sunni Islam revived by the Imam Syed Masood Ahmad in the 1960s.[91] The present leader of this group is Muhammad Ishtiaq.[92]

Liberal Islam

Liberal and progressive movements have in common a religious outlook which depends mainly on Ijtihad or re-interpretations of scriptures. Liberal Muslims believe in greater autonomy of the individual in interpretation of scripture, a critical examination of religious texts, gender equality, human rights, LGBT rights and a modern view of culture, tradition, and other ritualistic practices in Islam.[citation needed]

Gülen movement

The Hizmet movement, established in the 1970s as an offshoot of the Nur Movement[93] and led by the Turkish Islamic scholar and preacher Fethullah Gülen in Turkey, Central Asia, and in other parts of the world, is active in education, with private schools and universities in over 180 countries as well as with many American charter schools operated by followers. It has initiated forums for interfaith dialogue.[94][95] The Cemaat’s structure has been described as a flexible organizational network.[96] Movement schools and businesses organize locally and link themselves into informal networks.[97] Estimates of the number of schools and educational institutions vary widely; it appears there are about 300 Gülen movement schools in Turkey and over 1,000 schools worldwide.[98][99]

Fethullah Gülen advocates cooperation between followers of different religions as well as between those practicing different forms of Islam such as Alevi and Sunni in Turkey. Gülen-movement participants have founded a number of institutions across the world that claim to promote interfaith and intercultural dialogue activities. Among them the major ones are the Istanbul-based Journalists and Writers Foundation, the Washington, D.C.-based Rumi Forum, and the New Delhi-based Indialogue Foundation. In addition, in 2004 a diverse group of Gülen-movement academics founded the London Centre for Social Studies (LCSS) to generate thinking and debate amongst academics, activists, policy makers, practitioners, media and civil-society organisations both at the national and international level. As a non-profit independent research organisation, LCSS uses social-science research tools to address major social, political and economic issues such as migration, social cohesion, subjectivity, education, gender, human rights in a critical way.

Quranism

Quranism (Arabic: قرآنيون‎ Quraniyoon) is an Islamic branch that holds the Qur’an to be the only canonical text in Islam. Quranists reject the religious authority of Hadith and often Sunnah, libraries compiled by later scholars who catalogued narratives of what the Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said and done. This is in contrast to orthodox Muslims, Shias and Sunnis, who consider hadith essential for the Islamic faith.[100]

Ahle Qur’an

“Ahle Qur’an” is an organisation formed by Abdullah Chakralawi,[101][102] rely entirely on the chapters and verses of the Qur’an.

Submitters

The United Submitters International (USI) is a branch of Quranism, founded by Rashad Khalifa. Submitters considers themselves to be adhering to “true Islam”, but prefer not to use the terms “Muslim” or “Islam”, instead using the English equivalents: “Submitter” or “Submission”. Submitters consider Khalifa to be a Messenger of God. Specific beliefs of the USI include: the dedication of all worship practices to God alone, upholding the Qur’an alone with the exception of two rejected Qur’an verses,[103] and rejecting the Islamic traditions of hadith and sunnah attributed to Muhammad. The main group attends “Masjid Tucson”[104] in Arizona, USA.

Non-denominational Islam

Non-denominational Muslims are Muslims who do not adhere to any specific sect of Islam. Such Muslims may visit any mosque regardless of its sectarian affiliation. Their beliefs may overlap with those of multiple Muslims.

Tolu-e-Islam

Tolu-e-Islam (“Resurgence of Islam”) is a non-denominational Muslim organization based in Pakistan, with members throughout the world.[105] The movement was initiated by Ghulam Ahmed Pervez.

Muwahhid Muslims

A Muwahhid Muslim is a Muslim who gives emphasis to the concept of tawhid. Their beliefs insinuate that the oneness of God is the most important Muslim creed. They view deviation from tawhid whether in the form of the trinity, materialism or idolatry as very sinful. Nowadays, this term is being frequently used by Druses and Wahhabis in order to define their tawhid aqidah.[106][107][108]

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pseudonym: Ball-peen Hammer Green

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