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On the Mark of the Beast – Part 3


Ed. Note: What follows is Part Three of a three-part series on the Mark of the Beast. The author, Dr. William Welty, is the Executive Director of the ISV foundation and also serves as Research Analyst in Advanced Communication Technologies and Adjunct Professor of Middle Eastern Studies on the faculty of Koinonia Institute.

All Biblical citations are taken from the International Standard Version (ISV) translation of the Bible.

2. The Mark of the Beast

Here’s a copy of the text of  Revelation 13:18 from Codex Sinaiticus:


Revelation 13:18 in Codex Sinaiticus. Note the presence of horizontal markers between the lines, indicative of possible abbreviation and/or symbolism being called to the attention of the reader or copyist above the letter “o” in the Greek word “exeko” in the second to last line of the text.

The key part of the image to which we call the reader’s attention are the last two letters in the second to last line, above. They are the Greek letters kappa and omicron. They correspond to the English letters “k” and “o,” and comprise the last two letters of the Greek word that translates into English as the number “sixty” in this verse.

Please keep in mind that Codex Sinaiticus is an uncial manuscript. In other words, with the exception of a few words (such as the word for “sixty” in Revelation 13:18), all of the letters in the manuscript are CAPITAL letters. Minuscule manuscripts of the New Testament were written entirely in lower case letters. There were no early manuscripts composed with both upper and lower case letters, except as noted above when the uncial manuscript copyist was attempting to communicate an abbreviation or other matter to the attention of the reader or later copyist. Miniscule manuscripts that include Revelation 13:18 had a tendency not to spell out the words “six hundred,” “sixty,” or “six” as words, as can be seen in Codex Sinaiticus. Instead, they would only print the numeric values themselves in a row, perhaps like this: χ ξ ς. We will leave it to Arabic language experts to debate the philological resemblance between the Shahadatan and the Greek letters χ, ξ, and ς.

Summary and Conclusions

We do not believe that the Greek text of Revelation 13:18 necessarily requires that the hegemony of Anti-Christ includes absolute world-wide domination of a global currency to which adherence is a strict and involuntary requirement. The Greek text of Revelation 13 includes the clear and obvious indication that those who take the mark of the Beast will do so voluntarily, perhaps out of the same type of allegiance that influenced people in the former Soviet Union to join the Communist Party in order to enjoy the best of the benefits of that regime. Taking the mark of the Beast will be a symbol of adherence to a false religious system that rejects the hegemony of Messiah HaNaggid, the Messiah-Prince of Israel, Jesus of Nazareth.

Now as to the dangers of digital currencies, electronic money such as BitCoin, or the dangers inherent in dependence upon fiat paper money, we have little to contribute to the debate that hasn’t already been noted. We see danger in RFID technology for a variety of reasons, but none of them relate to the false religious system described in Revelation 13. In the midst of our debates about these subjects, let’s be careful to distinguish between what the text is saying, and what it’s not necessarily saying. One may, as I do, oppose RFIDs and certain types of ID chips, without seeing them as the mark of the Beast. I see them as violations of privacy and security, with private and/or government intrusion not welcome on any level without my consent.

Afterward: Toward a Biblically-based Alternative

But then again, it’s the consent issue that constitutes the problem, is it not? It seems to me, therefore, that Christians have an obligation to the world we live in to do something more significant and lasting than merely to sit back and to criticize without actually proposing practical solutions to the problems about which we write. Anybody can smell a rotten egg, but it takes a healthy chicken to lay a good one. Am I the only one who seems to have noted that an astonishingly large number of Christian objectors to RFID technology haven’t bothered to propose their own biblically-based solution to what they perceive is a problem? All these objectors seem to be doing nowadays is to criticize, to publish books, to write articles, and to distribute Internet blogs of dubious scholarly disposition about RFIDs, all the while selling lots of DVD’s and other materials about how their grammatically unsupportable theories “prove” what the Mark of the Beast is or will be.

Frankly, because I hold an alternative, contrarian position in this regard, for a number of years now I’ve been working with some international business acquaintances located in Europe and within the African Union, very quietly and out-of-the public eye, on a workable alternative to electronic, cashless transactions that depend on privacy-violating RFID chips or other intrusive technologies. We’ve done this as quietly as we reasonably can within the context of the revealing nature of the Internet so as to avoid being attacked by a hostile banking industry or by hostile government regulatory agencies such as the IMF or the World Bank.

Naturally, over the last few years, the only attacks we’ve received about our projects have come from the so-called “evangelical Christian” community. Some of the more abusive, libelous, and uninformed members of this group have accused me and Dr. Missler of being members of the Illuminati, the One-World Government, or other global elitist communities. Some of these clueless individuals have confused our watchdog role of observing various United Nations technology groups with which we’ve been affiliated with or have had membership in, as if we’re in lockstep with their one world agenda.

The truth is that, just as if there’s a wasp in the room, I intend to keep an eye on it—all the while keeping my can of bug killer in my hand—so also we monitor various U.N. agencies so we can monitor their activities.

A global Super-Wide Area Network Satellite (SWANsat) System






As many of our Koinonia Institute members have observed, for a number of years now I have been involved in the development of a revolutionary new method of providing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) services via geosynchronous satellite.

The primary focus of this project has been to create a global Super-Wide Area Network Satellite (SWANsat) System that, when made operational, could provide a world-wide private ICT link to facilitate secure telecommunications and ICT.

It became quickly evident early in the development process that, when coupled with ultra-high security encryption capability, it could be possible to develop a means to facilitate local and international banking and commerce that could stand independent of oppression, control, or malevolent hacking attempts while still maintaining lawful economic commerce, all the while bypassing oppressive efforts to interfere with legitimate transactions.


Toward this end, one of our associate companies has developed a comprehensive payments platform that provides a mobile phone-based payment controller that can be deployed without the need for brick-and-mortar buildings, banking institutions, or point-of-sale hardware.

The system is called a “2 Dimensional payment mechanism”. 

It provides seamless integration for all retail, e-commerce, point-of-sale, and mobile wallet payment systems with a state-of-the-art controller that operates without RFID technology or intrusive, privacy-violating inquiries from parties uninvolved in the cash transaction being undertaken between the payer and payee. The only electronics involved is the user’s mobile phone.

As developed and rolled out into the African markets by our associates at GTiPay, Ltd., it’s significant what is not involved in the newly patented system:


» 2D is not a credit card linked system.

» 2D is not a payment code linked to personal and credit card information.

» 2D is not a predetermined code with a monetary value or a voucher.

» 2D is not an e-wallet or underlying account system for individual subscription.

» 2D does not require registration from individuals (like PayPal and others do).

» 2D is not a separate mobile application to use for payment.

» 2D is not linked to Point-of-Sale hardware.

Instead, the 2D system incorporates the following positive, privacy-advocating characteristics:

» 2D is a payment mechanism alternative to card based payment systems.

» 2D is uniquely generated codes, with attributes that are instantly recognized world-wide.

» 2D is a payment online from any of the payer’s accounts, with no credit card account needed.

» 2D provides instant transaction verification world-wide.

» 2D is a payment mechanism for banks, e-wallet companies, or any account provider institute.

» 2D is free from special hardware to facilitate a payment.

This system is designed to eliminate abusive financial experiences that have been affecting citizens of Developing Countries (DC’s) and Least Developed Countries (LDC’s) within the African Union, who are subject to monopolistic abuse by international payment facilitators with respect to wire transfers, ACH transactions, and SWIFT transactions. When systems such as the 2D concept are fully rolled out world-wide, with attendant corresponding bank representations being established in other continents, the usefulness of companies such as Western Union may well become severely limited.

Related Articles

June 08, 2015 | Source: khouse.org | enews

About the author


William P. Welty, Ph.D

Dr. Welty is Executive Director of the ISV Foundation of Bellflower, California, producers of the Holy Bible: International Standard Version.

He is a graduate (M.Div., 1978) of Trinity Evangelical Divinity School of Deerfield, Illinois and holds a Ph.D. in Christian Communications (2005) from Louisiana Baptist University.

Dr. Welty also serves in the dual roles of Research Analyst in Advanced Communication Technologies and Adjunct Professor of Middle Eastern Studies on the faculty of the Koinonia Institute.

 A copy of this paper has been downloaded from the author’s web site see below: 

On the Mark of the Beast – Part 1

Ed. Note: What follows is Part One of a three-part series on the Mark of the Beast. The author, Dr. William Welty, is the Executive Director of the ISV foundation and also serves as Research Analyst in Advanced Communication Technologies and Adjunct Professor of Middle Eastern Studies on the faculty of Koinonia Institute. All Biblical citations are taken from the International Standard Version (ISV) translation of the Bible.

Why 666 has nothing to do with RFID technology or digital one-world currency

For many decades now, at least part of modern evangelical Christian tradition has taught that the end of days will be characterized by an attempt to set up a single world government with what some believe will be a one world currency. As Koinonia Institute’s Executive Research Editor Dr. Steven Elwart has observed1)http://kiresearch.org/2015/04/toward-world-currency-control/ :

The Bible does not use the phrase “one-world government” or “one-world currency” in referring to the end times. It does, however, provide ample evidence to enable us to draw the conclusion that both will exist under the rule of the Antichrist in the last days.

Elwart is not alone in holding this view. Perhaps one of the more vocal proponents of the opinion that the end times will see a one world currency control system being established throughout the earth is Dr. Katherine Albrecht,2)http://www.katherinealbrecht.com/about-katherine/ an internationally recognized authority on cyber security and privacy issues, including the dangers of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technologies. But it isn’t only the evangelical Christian community that’s concerned about the spreading adoption of electronic currencies as a means to control personal and national economics. The respected international investment experts at Casey Research3)http://www.caseyresearch.com/articles/governments-want-to-enslave-you-with-digital-cash have been warning of late:

» Governments want to get rid of physical cash. Paper currency is just too private. Digital cash is much easier to track, tax, and confiscate. Unfortunately, most Americans are too clueless to resist what’s coming. Casey Research contributor Jeff Thomas says the sheeple will agree to anything that’s sold as a panacea to their economic woes.4)http://www.caseyresearch.com/go/ujzzs-2/CSR

» The US government is just waiting for the right opportunity… which Jeff believes will be the next financial crisis. Politicians will blame it on people who “hoard” their cash. Good citizens, you see, give their cash to a bank for safekeeping. We can’t have people hiding cash outside the system under their mattresses.

» You can almost hear President Hillary on TV: “Effective immediately, all cash will be digitized. You have 60 days to deposit your paper dollars with a bank. This is for the good of the people.”

The Temporary Authority of the Anti-Christ in Revelation 13:5–10a

One of the most important component elements contained in the eschatological drama described in the apocalyptic literary genre that is the book of Revelation is the temporary nature of the authority granted to the forces of Anti-Christ at the end of days. We invite the reader to notice the derivative and limited nature of the authority wielded by this individual and his followers:

The beast was allowed to speak arrogant and blasphemous things, and it was given authority for 42 months. It uttered blasphemies against God, against his name, and against his residence, that is, against those who are living in heaven. It was allowed to wage war against the saints and to conquer them. It was also given authority over every tribe, people, languages, and nation. All those living on earth will worship it, everyone whose name is not written in the Book of Life belonging to the lamb that was slaughtered from the foundation of the world.

— Revelation 13:5–8, ISV

Specifically, note the permissive, passive verbs in this passage such as “The beast was allowed to speak” (13:5), “it was given authority for 42 months” (13:5b), it “was allowed to wage war against the saints and to conquer them” during this time period (13:7), and “it was also given authority” (13:7) over all sorts of ethnic groups and cultural enclaves on an international scale for this three and a half year period. The use of the passive voice is a grammatical indicator from the writer informing us that the Sovereign Lord over all creation is in charge of the earth, even during the 42 months of demonic reign over that earth. The Apostle John summarizes the absolute sovereignty of God over these events in the very next verses:

Let everyone listen:
If anyone is to be taken captive,
into captivity he will go.
If anyone is to be killed with a sword,
with a sword he will be killed.

— Revelation 13:9–10, ISV

To sum up, the writer of the Revelation to John reminds his readers that nobody will fall under the hegemony of Anti-Christ outside of the absolute and complete authority and predestination of God himself. God controls the extent of Anti-Christ’s authority, the success of his belligerent campaigns against the saints, the duration and timing of his all-too-temporary reign, and the ferocity of his attacks on God’s people. Nothing about these events will take God by surprise.

The Grammatical Implications of Revelation 13:10b–18

The clues that help us eliminate a one world currency or RFID technology as the identifying Mark of the Beast are contained in the text of Revelation 13:10b–18:

Here is a call for endurance and faith of the saints:

If anyone is to be taken captive, into captivity he will go. If anyone is to be killed with a sword, with a sword he will be killed. Here is a call for endurance and faith of the saints: I saw another beast coming up out of the earth. It had two horns like a lamb and it talked like a dragon. It uses all the authority of the first beast on its behalf, and it makes the earth and those living on it worship the first beast, whose mortal wound was healed. It performs spectacular signs, even making fire come down from heaven to earth in front of people. It deceives those living on earth with the signs that it is allowed to do on behalf of the first beast, telling them to make an image for the beast who was wounded by a sword and yet lived. The second beast was allowed to impart life to the image of the first beast so that the image of the beast could talk and order the execution of those who would not worship the image of the beast. The second beast forces all people—important and unimportant, rich and poor, free and slaves—to be marked on their right hands or on their foreheads, so that no one may buy or sell unless he has the mark, which is the beast’s name or the number of its name. In this case wisdom is needed: Let the person who has understanding calculate the total number of the beast, because it is a human total number, and the sum of the number is 666.”

— Revelation 13:10–18, ISV

Other translations note:

» 13:18 is a multitude of a man; or is the number of a human being

» 13:18 total number

» 13:18 Other manuscripts read 616; some scholars suggest that the Greek letters χ, ξ, and ς (totaling 666) may resemble the proto-Arabic term for “in the name of Allah”

The main grammatical clue that informs us regarding the application of this passage to economic indicators is the awkward Greek construction found in verse sixteen: “The second beast forces” all sorts of people “to be marked on their right hands or on their foreheads.” The aftereffect of the mark is to prohibit commerce via cash transactions by those who do not have the mark. As a matter of numismatic fact, however, the text does not indicate that this prohibition will include restrictions on barter-for-kind transactions. Only buying and selling through traditional coinage will be affected.

Nothing in the text of Revelation 13 indicates that barter will be included in the economic controls of the future one world economy.

Related Reading

Original Source:  eNews for May 25, 2015 


↑ 1. http://kiresearch.org/2015/04/toward-world-currency-control/
↑ 2. http://www.katherinealbrecht.com/about-katherine/
↑ 3. http://www.caseyresearch.com/articles/governments-want-to-enslave-you-with-digital-cash
↑ 4. http://www.caseyresearch.com/go/ujzzs-2/CSR

On the Mark of the Beast – Part 2

Ed. Note: What follows is Part Two of a three-part series on the Mark of the Beast. The author, Dr. William Welty, is the Executive Director of the ISV foundation and also serves as Research Analyst in Advanced Communication Technologies and Adjunct Professor of Middle Eastern Studies on the faculty of Koinonia Institute.

All Biblical citations are taken from the International Standard Version (ISV) translation of the Bible.

The Clue is in the Causative

The Apostle John’s description of the mark of the beast was recorded in the New Testament as a Greek koine narrative1)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish_Koine_Greek . The Greek language does not contain the rich nuance of volitional persuasion that is connoted by the Hebrew language causative verb form.

While most non-Hebrew language Bible readers may not be familiar with the Hebrew causative, almost every Bible reader is familiar with Psalm 23. Note how the Psalmist’s use of the Hebrew causative verb form brings out the subtle influence of God as he acts as shepherd to David, persuading him to take the actions described in verse two of the psalm:

The LORD is the one who is shepherding me; I lack nothing. He causes me to lie down in pastures of green grass; he guides me beside quiet waters.

— Psalm 23:1–2, ISV

Do notice, if you would, how David confesses that it is God who is causing him to lie down, but there’s no suggestion that this action is being taken against his will.

For David to lie down in the pasture is an act of active cooperation on David’s part, but he’s being motivated to make the choice and act on that choice by God’s outward and inward influence.

The same lack of brute force contained within the context of outward and inward influence is connoted by the Apostle John in Revelation 13:16’s use of the Greek dative declension of the personal pronoun “them” to describe the second beast influencing all sorts of people “to take for themselves the mark” (Greek: ἵνα δῶσιν αὐτοῖς χάραγμα), the actual nuance of the dative declension here.

The description by the Apostle John of the mark is that it will be placed either on the right hand or on the forehead of the person receiving it. This is a not-so-subtle clue to anyone familiar with the Torah of the antecedent theology from the earliest days of national Israel’s existence that the mark of the beast will be a rival or substitute for devotion to the true God of Israel.

The obvious word picture being described compares the mark of the beast to the Tefillim2)http://kitzur365.org/resources/kitzur-107-hashems-name-on-tefillin/ (or phylacteries) worn by righteous Jews.

Above: A set of Gussos tefillin in the Ashkanazi tradition.

Above: Ornate configuration of tefillin straps and design convey the name of God
 Just as the phylacteries were placed on the right hand or on the forehead of the faithful of ancient Israel, so also will these modern followers of the false prophet, the Beast, and their false god who animates them adopt to themselves an imitation emblem that mocks the faithful of ancient Israel.

Former Muslim terrorist and now Christian apologist Walid Shoebat3)http://shoebat.com/shoebat-foundation/who-is-walid/  has suggested in recent years that the Greek letters chi, ksi, and sigma (Greek: χ, ξ, and ς, used to indicate the three separate Greek numbers 600, 60, and 6) may bear

Above: Arabic language illustration of the Shahadatan confession of allegiance to Allah
AboveTop: Arabic abbreviation of the Shahadatan. Bottom: Greek miniscule letters for 600, 60, and 6
 a visual resemblance to the Aramaic4)http://cal1.cn.huc.edu/aramaic_language.html  rendering of the Shahadatan5)http://rasoulallah.net/index.php/en/articles/article/16078 , the standard Arabic language confessional statement of the unity of Allah and of the significance of Islam’s prophet Muhammad. Dr. Albrecht is aware of this view6)http://www.katherinealbrecht.com/blog/debunking-the-theory-that-the-mark-of-the-beast-is-islam/ , but rejects it outright. In our view, this rejection is without scholarly merit.

Hints from Codex Sinaiticus (ca. 350 AD)

One of the bases upon which Dr. Albrecht rejects Shoebat’s thesis is Shoebat’s observation that a horizontal bar written across the top of the Greek letters representing the numbers 60 and 6 are added by Shoebat to bolster his claim that the philological appearance of the sequence of Greek letters bears a visual resemblance to the Shahadatan.

Aside from Dr. Albrecht’s ignorance concerning the elements of the Greek alphabet (such as her confusing the name of the miniscule Greek letter sigma (ς) with the Latin language word stigma, which means “mark”), Dr. Albrecht is just plain wrong about the use of horizontal marks in Greek manuscripts.

Their presence in NT Greek manuscript philology is not only abundant and common, a study of their usage and function is a component element of elementary Greek exegetical analysis and textual criticism. We take the liberty of citing two examples from Codex Sinaiticus7)http://www.codexsinaiticus.org/en/ to illustrate this pattern of using horizontal marks in the Greek text to indicate abbreviations.

1. The Divine Name

The earliest indications that Christians considered Jesus to be Yahweh Elohim8)http://www.gotquestions.org/names-of-God.html incarnate is seen by examining how the first known manuscripts of the Greek New Testament depict the name “Jesus” and many predicate nominatives that refer to him.

It is common knowledge that Jews were, as an almost inviolate rule, averse to pronouncing the holy name of God. Even today, many orthodox Jewish publishing houses will refrain from spelling out the English noun “God” in their English language manuscripts, preferring instead to spell the word as “G-d” so as to avoid violating the Third Commandment.

The writers of the New Testament gospels were Jews. When they wrote Greek words that refer to HaShem9)http://www.betemunah.org/hashem.html , that is, pronouns that refer to deity [such as the Greek word kyrios10)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyrios , which means “Lord”], they would follow this ancient tradition.

One of the clearest examples demonstrating that the early copyists of New Testament manuscripts were following in that Jewish tradition of avoiding spelling out references to deity can be found in the text of Codex Sinaiticus, which is arguably considered the earliest extant copy of the New Testament.

It has been dated reliably to about the middle of the fourth century, AD We reproduce below a sample portion of Matthew 23:39-24:1 from Codex Sinaiticus, along with a Greek transcription and English translation of that text from the Holy Bible: International Standard Version.

The line immediately preceding this portion of Matthew 23:39–24:1 reads “…you will not see me again until you say,…” immediately followed by the text above, which translates as:

…“‘How blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord!’” After Jesus had left the Temple and was walking away…

The first three lines of the uncial manuscript (i.e., a manuscript written completely in capital letters) depicted in the image above are a quotation by Jesus from Psalm 118:26, where the Masoretic Text11)http://www.biblebelievers.org.au/masorete.htm  phrase “name of the Lord“ spells the word LORD. This is a specific reference to Yahweh Elohim.

Do note, if you will please, how the Codex Sinaiticus copyist declined to spell out the name of God in the Greek text. Instead, he wrote out an abbreviation of the Greek word kyrios, using only the Greek letters KY. The letters come from the Greek genitive singular kyriou, which translate as “of the Lord”. Then he placed a short diacritical mark above the line, starting at the right edge of the letter “K” and extending about half way across the top of the capital letter “Y”.

The presence of this diacritical mark is somewhat analogous to modern English grammatical usage of an apostrophe within a contraction to indicate missing letters that are to be supplied by the reader for comprehension. (For example, the contraction “don’t” is intended to mean “do not”.) Contractions were utilized when referring to deity out of a reluctance to violate the Third Commandment, which prohibits vain use of the name of God.

But notice how in the very next line, that same copyist applied the tradition of not spelling out the name of God to not spelling out the name of Jesus. Instead, he spelled “Jesus” as “IS,” (i.e., printing the first and last letter of his name as a contraction), and then he added the same diacritical mark above those two letters that he did with the noun referring to God just a few lines above.

This pattern is so prevalent throughout Codex Sinaiticus, occurring dozens of times in the manuscript, that a clear and obvious pattern linking the name of Jesus and predicate nominative pronouns referring to Jesus with the sacred name of Yahweh Elohim cannot be denied. In sum, the copyists of the early New Testament manuscripts afforded Jesus the same reverence and honor when writing out his name and references to him that the reverent Jews extended to the sacred name “LORD”.

Related Reading

Original Source: eNews for June 01, 2015


↑ 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish_Koine_Greek
↑ 2. http://kitzur365.org/resources/kitzur-107-hashems-name-on-tefillin/
↑ 3. http://shoebat.com/shoebat-foundation/who-is-walid/
↑ 4. http://cal1.cn.huc.edu/aramaic_language.html
↑ 5. http://rasoulallah.net/index.php/en/articles/article/16078
↑ 6. http://www.katherinealbrecht.com/blog/debunking-the-theory-that-the-mark-of-the-beast-is-islam/
↑ 7. http://www.codexsinaiticus.org/en/
↑ 8. http://www.gotquestions.org/names-of-God.html
↑ 9. http://www.betemunah.org/hashem.html
↑ 10. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyrios
↑ 11. http://www.biblebelievers.org.au/masorete.htm