NHS managers told care homes to put blanket ‘do not resuscitate’ orders on ALL residents at height of Covid crisis, report shows

Professor Alison Leary MBE authored investigated DNR orders in care homes

One in 10 care home staff were told to change DNR orders for their residents

Professor Leary is now calling for an inquiry to be held over the practice

NHS managers told care homes to put a blanket ‘do not resuscitate’ order on all of their residents during the peak of the COVID crisis, according to a report.

The Queen’s Nursing Institute found one in 10 care home staff were told to change resuscitation orders for patients, The Telegraph reports. In some cases, they didn’t consult family members first.

Other care home staff said that during the height of the coronavirus crisis, hospitals were refusing to admit residents from care homes.

The orders mean doctors will not attempt to restart a patient’s heart with defibrillators or cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and will be allowed to die if it happens naturally.

Professor Alison Leary MBE, an expert in healthcare and workforce modelling at London South Bank University who wrote the report, said she was surprised to see so many people come forward about the ‘do not resuscitate’ orders.

She told the Telegraph: ’10 per cent of the respondents raised an issue, because they were either blanket decisions for whole populations, or they were imposed without discussion with the care home or the family or the residents, and that is really worrying.’

The report comes after the chief of the Aged Care in April told hospitals and GP practices not to request the orders en masse, banning the use of blanket forms.

Stephen Powis, boss of NHS England, wrote to staff to ban the forms after it was revealed that doctors in Wales had asked elderly patients to agree not to call the emergency services.

Jonathan Ashworth, the Labour Party’s shadow health secretary, today said it was ‘scandalous’ that DNR forms had been used in this way.

IMAGE: Professor Alison Leary MBE  Professor Alison Leary MBE (pictured) wrote the report which found that one in 10 care home staff were told to change resuscitation orders for patients, in some cases without consulting family members first

Care home residents revealed at the start of the UK’s outbreak that they had been urged to sign forms agreeing that they wouldn’t go to hospital if they caught COVID-19.

Jonathan Ashworth said: ‘It’s scandalous that blanket do not resuscitate orders were used.

‘Ministers should have done everything to protect care home residents.

‘To have left care home residents and staff not just unprotected and exposed to COVID-19 but to have put in place procedures that actively allowed COVID-19 to spread in care homes is an atrocious failure of Boris Johnson. ‘Instead families are left with the tragic consequences of heartbreaking loss of life.’

IMAGE: One fifth of the 128 nurses  One fifth of the 128 nurses and care home managers involved in the survey claimed to have received patients from hospitals who had tested positive for coronavirus (Pictured: Stock photo of care home staff in the UK – those pictured are not thought to have been involved with the investigation)

Deborah Alsina MBE, chief executive of the charity Independent Age, said the report’s findings were ‘very concerning’.

She said: ‘Older people should not have their choice and control removed regarding how their life ends, simply because of their chronological age.

‘Older people need to be given clear information so they can make the decision that’s right for them. This new research shows that sadly, in many cases, people seem to have had their wishes and preferences ignored.

‘Do not resuscitate orders should, wherever possible, be made in consultation with the person concerned and their family and be based on fitness to be treated, as well as personal preference.

‘Care home staff have been under enormous pressure over the last five months and it is unfair on both staff and residents, to be instructed to change DNR plans without consultation.’

It emerged early on in April that doctors were discussing DNR orders with their patients who were considered particularly vulnerable to COVID-19.

GPs told the Health Service Journal at the time that those over 80 and those who were very likely to die if they caught coronavirus were being contacted to make plans.

The Royal College of GPs encouraged doctors to have these discussions early on so that people could get their wishes clear before the virus started spreading wildly and doctors became overwhelmed.

The British Medical Association also helped to draft the guidance urging doctors to sort the issues out before the outbreak worsened.

Dr Jonathan Leach, a member of the Royal College, said it was ‘more humane’ to talk about it in advance than to wait until someone was already ill.

The RCGP advice published on March 23 said some should: ‘Proactively complete Respect/DNAR forms and prescribe anticipatory medications in advance of a worsening spread of disease’.

Some of the people reached out to were care home residents.

Professor Alison Leary, who did the Queen’s Nursing Institute report, has called for an inquiry to be conducted into the way that care homes were dealt with during the crisis.

One fifth of the 128 nurses and care home managers involved in the survey claimed to have received patients from hospitals who had tested positive for coronavirus.

Almost half of the staff surveyed said that residents sent to them from hospitals had arrived before being tested.

The chief executive of the Queen’s Nursing Institute, Dr Crystal Oldman CBE, said that more needs to be done to understand the pressures faced by care homes during the pandemic.

Charities have warned throughout the crisis that elderly people across Britain feel they are being pressured into signing ‘do not resuscitate’ forms.

It led to some British pensioners feeling as if their lives ‘do not matter’, organisations including Age UK and Independent Age wrote in an open letter in April.

The Care Quality Commission, British Medical Association, Care Provider Alliance and the Royal College of General Practitioners, warned against the practice at the start of the pandemic, calling it ‘unacceptable’.

It comes after the Government was last month pressured into issuing new guidance on ‘do not resuscitate’ orders after a woman threatened legal action over concerns ill coronavirus patients’ human rights were being ignored.

Kate Masters had threatened to sue the Government over its failure to provide consistent advice on DNRs during the COVID-19 pandemic.

She previously said the decision-making process around DNRs had ‘become opaque, inconsistent and deficient’ amid reports of poor practice, including elderly patients apparently being pressured into signing DNR forms, during the crisis.

The Government said it would publish two documents to ensure patients and families understand how DNR decisions are currently being made.

A study last month revealed more than half of all adult patients treated for coronavirus at a leading hospital were given ‘do not resuscitate’ orders or barred from treatment in intensive care.


What is a Do Not Resuscitate order?

A DNR order is a legal order which tells a medical team not to perform CPR on a patient. However, this does not affect other medical treatments.

Who can invoke a DNR?

The British Medical Association and the Royal College of Nursing say that DNR orders should only be issued after discussions have been held with patients or their family.

A patient may decline resuscitation if they have capacity as defined under the Mental Health Act 2005.

If patients want to record this in a legally binding document they should plan to make an ‘advance decision to refuse treatment’ (ADRT), but it is often best to have it recorded on a CPR decision form as well, so that healthcare professionals will recognise it easily. Or they can simply ask your healthcare professionals to record your decision on a CPR decision form.

When would it not be appropriate to attempt resuscitation?

Not everyone wants to receive attempted CPR, so it is important to respect people’s wishes and to make sure that they are offered a chance to make choices that are right for them.

When someone’s heart and breathing stop because they are dying from an advanced and irreversible condition, CPR will subject them to a vigorous physical intervention that deprives them of a dignified death. For some people this may prolong the process of dying and, in doing so, prolong or increase suffering.

When there is a chance CPR may bring someone back from cardiac arrest to a length and quality of life that they would want, they should be offered:

The chance to be given clear and accurate information about their condition and the likely risks and benefits from CPR if they should suffer cardiac arrest;

The chance to express their beliefs and wishes and to make a shared decision with their health professionals on whether or not they should receive attempted CPR if they should suffer cardiac arrest.

Less than one in five patients – 18 per cent – was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU).

A total of 61 per cent of COVID-19 patients had treatment limitations placed on them on admission to King’s College Hospital in London at the peak of the crisis. This meant they were denied access to potentially life-saving care.

The study heightened fears about care rationing for elderly and vulnerable patients amid concerns that they were rushed into agreeing do not resuscitate (DNR) orders.

As well as DNR orders, elderly people also revealed that they were asked to sign forms agreeing not to be taken from care homes into hospital if they fell ill.

It emerged in April that elderly people were being asked to sign the agreements en masse as hospitals were coming under intense pressure from thousands of patients with the infectious disease.

People over the age of 80 are known to be the most at risk of dying if they catch COVID-19 and those in their 60s or older have accounted for more than nine out of 10 deaths.

And the NHS admitted that life-support machines could have to be prioritised for younger or healthier patients if overloaded hospitals were left with a 50/50 choice.

One woman living in a care home in Wiltshire, Elizabeth Diacon, 97, said she and ‘several friends’ were asked to sign the letters but claims she did not feel pressured.

Ms Diacon, who worked in military intelligence at the Bletchley Park code-breaking operation in Milton Keynes in World War Two, said at the time: ‘I’m not afraid of dying but I’m rather afraid of how I might die. I’d rather do it here than go to hospital.’

Speaking on BBC Radio 4’s Today programme on April 16, Ms Diacon said ‘all who could’ at her care home had been asked to sign the letter.

‘To say that if we fell ill that we would not go to hospital,’ she said. ‘Unless of course we broke a hip or something.’

Ms Diacon said she ‘presumed’ the form was referring to the event in which they became critically ill with the coronavirus, which causes pneumonia.

She added: ‘I don’t know where the form came from but I’ve spoken to several friends in care homes and they’ve all had to sign it.’

Asked whether she felt she had been pressured into signing the form Ms Diacon told the BBC: ‘You didn’t have to – you were asked if you would sign it, to agree.

‘And I thought I would rather be ill here than go to hospital. Our local hospital is much overworked and it has the virus there. I’m not afraid of dying but i’m rather afraid of how I might die. I’d rather do it here than go to hospital.’

When questioned about the letter, Health Secretary Matt Hancock said they were ‘standard procedure’ and that it was appropriate as long as people aren’t pressured.

He claimed that residents often say they would rather die in the home than a hospital ward, adding: ‘It is reasonable and right, I’d argue a good thing, to ask people their wishes.’

The form was not the same as a Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) order, which dictates that someone should not be given CPR if they die.

It would, however, mean someone wouldn’t get the lifesaving medical care available in a hospital and be limited to what care home staff and on-site doctors can provide.

Original Source: Date-stamped: 2020 AUG 24 | Time-stamped: 10:15 AEST | Author: Sam Baker and Sam Blanchard | Article Title: NHS managers told care homes to put blanket 'do not resuscitate' orders on ALL residents at height of Covid crisis, report shows | Article Link: dailymail.co.uk

2020 JUL 17 Testing Will Begin In Africa For Biometric ID, “Vaccine Records”, & “Payment Systems”


Testing will soon begin in poverty-stricken parts of Africa for a biometric ID which will also be your payment system and vaccine record. The biometric digital identity platform that “evolves just as you evolve” is backed by none other than the Bill Gates-backed GAVI vaccine alliance, Mastercard, and the AI-powered “identity authentication” company, Trust Stamp. 

The GAVI Alliance, which is largely funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates and Rockefeller Foundations, as well as allied governments and the vaccine industry, is principally concerned with[1]Gavi is an international organisation – a global Vaccine Alliance SEE URL: https://www.gavi.org/our-alliance improving “the health of markets for vaccines and other immunization products,” rather than the health of individuals, according to its own website. Similarly, Mastercard’s GAVI partnership is directly linked to its “World Beyond Cash” effort, which mainly bolsters its business model that has long depended on a reduction in the use of physical cash.

The program, which was first launched[2]Gavi and Mastercard join forces to reach more children with lifesaving vaccines SEE URL https://www.gavi.org/news/media-room/gavi-and-mastercard-join-forces-reach-more-children-lifesaving-vaccines in late 2018, will see Trust Stamp’s digital identity platform integrated into the GAVI-Mastercard “Wellness Pass,” a digital vaccination record and identity system that is also linked[3]Mastercard Digital Wellness Program to Enhance Transparency, Security and Choice for Online Shopping SEE URL: … Continue reading to Mastercard’s click-to-play system that powered by its AI and machine learning technology called NuData.[4]Validate users with passive biometrics that look at their unique behavior SEE URL: … Continue reading Mastercard, in addition to professing its commitment to promoting “centralized record keeping of childhood immunization” also describes itself[5]Mastercard SEE URL: https://www.gavi.org/investing-gavi/funding/donor-profiles/mastercard as a leader toward a “World Beyond Cash,” and its partnership with GAVI marks a novel approach towards linking a biometric digital identity system, vaccination records, and a payment system into a single cohesive platform. The effort, since its launch nearly two years ago, has been funded[6]Mastercard SEE URL: https://www.gavi.org/investing-gavi/funding/donor-profiles/mastercard via $3.8 million in GAVI donor funds in addition to a matched donation of the same amount by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

In early June, GAVI reported that[7]Private sector partners strengthen Gavi programmes with more than US$ 70 million in contributions SEE URL: … Continue reading Mastercard’s Wellness Pass program would be adapted in response to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Around a month later, Mastercard announced that[8]Signed, sealed, encrypted: This digital ID is all yours SEE URL: https://mastercardcontentexchange.com/perspectives/2020/signed-sealed-encrypted-this-digital-id-is-all-yours/ Trust Stamp’s biometric identity platform would be integrated into Wellness Pass as Trust Stamp’s system is capable of providing biometric identity in areas of the world lacking internet access or cellular connectivity and also does not require knowledge of an individual’s legal name or identity to function. The Wellness Program involving GAVI, Mastercard, and Trust Stamp will soon be launched in West Africa and will be coupled with a COVID-19 vaccination program once a vaccine becomes available.

What is perhaps most alarming about this new “Wellness Pass” initiative, is that it links these “dual use” digital solutions to cashless payment solutions that could soon become mandated as anything over than touchless, cashless, methods of payment have been treated as potential modes for contagion by GAVI-aligned groups like the World Health Organization,[9]Cash could be spreading the coronavirus, warns the World Health Organisation SEE URL: … Continue reading among others, since the pandemic was first declared earlier this year. –Activist Post[10]Africa to Become Testing Ground for “Trust Stamp” Vaccine Record and Payment System SEE URL: … Continue reading

Do you get it yet? It’s all tied into the same thing, and the plandemic is an excuse to roll this out. Wake up. They are not coming to save you, quite the opposite, actually.

For those stuck on the line of thinking that President Donald Trump said this “vaccine will be voluntary,” you are probably correct. It’ll be “voluntary” all right. And if you don’t get it and participate in the new biometric ID program, you won’t be able to buy or sell anything, including food. That sounds nothing like the definition of voluntary to me, but believe in whatever religion you wish and put your trust in whomever you want. I’ll rely on myself instead of some politician to save me.

Oh, just what does Trump need 300 million doses[11]Trump Administration’s Operation Warp Speed Accelerates AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine to be Available Beginning in October SEE URL: … Continue reading of the vaccine for if it’s going to be “voluntary?” We are in for a “dark winter”[12]The COVID-19 “Dark Winter” Psyop: Question Everything see url: https://www.shtfplan.com/headline-news/the-covid-19-dark-winter-psyop-question-everything_05202020 as they have already told us several times. It’s time to apply critical thinking[13]Overlooked Prepping Skill: Critical Thinking SEE URL: https://www.shtfplan.com/headline-news/overlooked-prepping-skill-critical-thinking_02182020 and stop falling for all of these psyops.

This doesn’t mean you shouldn’t remain vigilant and know what’s going on. Get your preps in order. Do another audit, buy some more food, and improve your water storage.  This system is here and it will not be voluntary in any sense of the word.  It’s similar to our “voluntary tax” system. Go ahead and choose to not pay, and men with guns will come to your house to make you pay. Yep, that’s how voluntary interaction works (note: that was sarcasm). Believe any politician you want, but they are all puppets for the Federal Reserve, and their takeover is imminent unless we wake up and stand together.

The entire breakdown of this new beast system can be read by clicking here.[15]Africa to Become Testing Ground for “Trust Stamp” Vaccine Record and Payment System (2) SEE URL: … Continue reading

Don’t just trust my word. (Mac Slavo) Look into these issues for yourself. Everything is linked above, and better yet, find your own information. I would implore all of you to not just believe what you are being told by anyone, including Trump or myself. Research, read, learn, and prepare. 

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Original-Source: Tyler Durden  Zerohedge
Original-Source-Published:  2020 JUL 17 22:45
Original-Source-URL: zerohedge.com


1 Gavi is an international organisation – a global Vaccine Alliance SEE URL: https://www.gavi.org/our-alliance
2 Gavi and Mastercard join forces to reach more children with lifesaving vaccines SEE URL https://www.gavi.org/news/media-room/gavi-and-mastercard-join-forces-reach-more-children-lifesaving-vaccines
3 Mastercard Digital Wellness Program to Enhance Transparency, Security and Choice for Online Shopping SEE URL: https://mastercardcontentexchange.com/newsroom/press-releases/2019/june/mastercard-digital-wellness-program-to-enhance-transparency-security-and-choice-for-online-shopping/
4 Validate users with passive biometrics that look at their unique behavior SEE URL: https://mastercardcontentexchange.com/newsroom/press-releases/2019/june/mastercard-digital-wellness-program-to-enhance-transparency-security-and-choice-for-online-shopping/
5, 6 Mastercard SEE URL: https://www.gavi.org/investing-gavi/funding/donor-profiles/mastercard
7 Private sector partners strengthen Gavi programmes with more than US$ 70 million in contributions SEE URL: https://www.gavi.org/news/media-room/private-sector-partners-strengthen-gavi-programmes-more-us-70-million-contributions
8 Signed, sealed, encrypted: This digital ID is all yours SEE URL: https://mastercardcontentexchange.com/perspectives/2020/signed-sealed-encrypted-this-digital-id-is-all-yours/
9 Cash could be spreading the coronavirus, warns the World Health Organisation SEE URL: https://www.businessinsider.com.au/cash-could-spread-coronavirus-warns-world-health-organization-2020-3?op=1&r=US&IR=T
10 Africa to Become Testing Ground for “Trust Stamp” Vaccine Record and Payment System SEE URL: https://www.activistpost.com/2020/07/africa-to-become-testing-ground-for-trust-stamp-vaccine-record-and-payment-system.html
11 Trump Administration’s Operation Warp Speed Accelerates AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine to be Available Beginning in October SEE URL: https://www.hhs.gov/about/news/2020/05/21/trump-administration-accelerates-astrazeneca-covid-19-vaccine-to-be-available-beginning-in-october.html
12 The COVID-19 “Dark Winter” Psyop: Question Everything see url: https://www.shtfplan.com/headline-news/the-covid-19-dark-winter-psyop-question-everything_05202020
13 Overlooked Prepping Skill: Critical Thinking SEE URL: https://www.shtfplan.com/headline-news/overlooked-prepping-skill-critical-thinking_02182020
14 Those Who Planned The Enslavement Of Mankind Warn Of “A Dark Winter” For Us see url: https://www.shtfplan.com/headline-news/those-who-planned-the-enslavement-of-mankind-warn-of-a-dark-winter-for-us_05142020
15 Africa to Become Testing Ground for “Trust Stamp” Vaccine Record and Payment System (2) SEE URL: https://www.activistpost.com/2020/07/africa-to-become-testing-ground-for-trust-stamp-vaccine-record-and-payment-system.html

Sumeria 2100 BCE; Slavery Is Not A White Mans Thing nor is it Just an American who used Slaves

Slavery Is Not A White Mans Thing nor is it Just an American who used Slaves: the colour of your skin had nothing to do with slavery it had to do with what power and force an ethnic group could muster to seize captives who then became slaves. If a nation was conquered in war all its citizens became the property of the victors and went into servitude to their captors. This practice goes right back to Ancient Mesopotamia & Sumerian kings; and these people were not white skinned; white privileged people.

The account of Moses (c. 1340 BCE) and the children of Israel is about a people who came to Egypt (The Patriarch Jacob) seeking refuge from a great famine. Jacob (Israel) were welcomed and his household, settled in Egypt and withing 400 years his household had grown to a Nation of Israelis the King Ruling at that time was induced to fear the possible reality that the Israelis would shortly grow in such numbers that the Egyptians would become the minority and the loss of power could eventuate to the Israelis, the King acted forced the Israelis into forced servitude and treated them harshly; to oppress and disempower this rising threat.


The Sumerian king Code of Ur-Nammu includes laws relating to slaves, written circa 2100 – 2050 BCE; it is the oldest known tablet containing a law code surviving today.

One mina ( 1/60 of a talent ) was made equal to 60 shekels ( 1 shekel = 11 grams ) . Among the surviving laws are these:

4. If a slave marries a slave, and that slave is set free, he does not leave the household.
5. If a slave marries a native (i.e. free) person, he/she is to hand the firstborn son over to his owner.

8. If a man proceeded by force, and deflowered the virgin female slave of another man, that man must pay five shekels of silver. (5)
17. If a slave escapes from the city limits, and someone returns him, the owner shall pay two shekels to the one who returned him. (14)

24. […] If he does not have a slave, he is to pay 10 shekels of silver. If he does not have silver, he is to give another thing that belongs to him. (21)
25. If a man’s slave-woman, comparing herself to her mistress, speaks insolently to her, her mouth shall be scoured with 1 quart of salt. (22)

[pdf-embedder url=”http://4cminews.com/wp-content/uploads/code_of_ur-nammu.pdf”]

The Babylonian Code of Hammurabi[1]The Code of Hammurabi was one of the earliest and most complete written legal codes and was proclaimed by the Babylonian king Hammurabi, who reigned from 1792 to 1750 B.C. Hammurabi expanded the … Continue reading, dating to c. 1700 BCE, also makes distinctions between the freeborn, freed and slave.

Hittite texts from Anatolia include laws regulating the institution of slavery[2]SEE URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hittites.

Of particular interest is a law stipulating that reward for the capture of an escaped slave would be higher if the slave had already succeeded in crossing the Halys River and getting farther away from the center of Hittite civilization[3]SEE URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hittites#Geography — from which it can be concluded that at least some of the slaves kept by the Hittites possessed a realistic chance of escaping and regaining their freedom, possibly by finding refuge with other kingdoms or ethnic groups.

In ancient Sumer, kings would send bands of men out to plunder neighbouring city-states in the hill country in order to acquire slaves (Moorey). In order to justify the acquisition of slaves, these kings would claim that their gods had given them victory over an inferior people.

Slavery was a huge part of civilization and how the ancient near east lived (Moorey). They depended on slaves to build their empires. Deportees were chosen for their abilities and were sent away where they could make the most of their talents.

Not everyone in the conquered population was chosen for deportation and families were surely separated. The supply of war captives and native born slaves at times were not sufficient enough to satisfy the demand for help in agriculture, industry, and in the households of the wealthy.

Therefore, the need for importing slaves from the neighbouring countries was vital to the growth of powerful city-states. Importing and exporting slaves played an important role in the country’s economy, this could be a large portion of ones income and slaves were surely not cheap.

Slaves were imported and exported by private merchants who dealt in various commodities. Strictly speaking, there were no slave merchants in the Ancient Near East or a single person just buying and selling slaves.  

The demand for slaves was not large enough to call for specialization in this field of commercial activity (King). Prisoners of war, foreign slaves, and their descendants made up a huge part of the slave population in Mesopotamia (King).

The bulk of the Sumerian and Akkadian slaves originally came from the ranks of the native population, which is the case for every city-states at some point in time. The slaves came from citizens who were defaulting debtors, unemployed men and women who sold themselves voluntarily into slavery, and minors who were either sold by their parents or who were forced into a position in which only slavery could save their lives (King).  

Merchants who dealt in wheat, cattle, real estate, and so on would also deal in buying and selling slaves as an extra source of income (King).

As we follow evidence through history, we see that slavery was a huge advantage for any new empire to become a success and thrive. Evidence has shown us that this was a way life for nearly every country in existence.

Slaves were needed for labour whether it be for farmers or building walls to the empire. Slaves were therefore very important to their success.

Above is the Standard of Ur. On the top panel, prisoners are being brought before the king .

On the right side, the prisoners are naked and bleeding from their wounds.

King Ur-Pabilsag stands in the center of the panel, reviewing the prisoners.

Behind the king are three soldiers, each armed with spears and axes.

In the rear is the royal chariot, held by the axe-armed driver.

The elite warriors and charioteers all seem to be dressed in some type of animal skin or fringed leather kilts and wear cloaks over one shoulder.

The common soldiers wear the polka-dotted capes, most likely meant to represent metal studs to make the cloak stronger and more protective in battle. Both classes have the same caps and or helmets.


King, Leonard William. A History of Sumer and Akkad: An Account of the Early Races of Babylonia from Prehistoric Times to the Foundation of the Babylonian Monarchy. Vol. 1. Chatto & Windus, 1923.
Moorey, Peter Roger Stuart. “The emergence of the light, horse‐drawn chariot in the Near‐East c. 2000–1500 BC.” World Archaeology 18.2 (1986): 196-215.


Original Source: Ancient Mesopotamian Warfare Slavery sites.psu.edu


Slave market, with Nubian slaves waiting to be sold

In Ancient Egypt, slaves were mainly obtained through prisoners of war. Other ways people could become slaves was by inheriting the status from their parents.

One could also become a slave on account of his inability to pay his debts. Slavery was the direct result of poverty.

People also sold themselves into slavery because they were poor peasants and needed food and shelter.

The lives of slaves were normally better than that of peasants. Slaves only attempted escape when their treatment was unusually harsh.

For many, being a slave in Egypt made them better off than a freeman elsewhere. Young slaves could not be put to hard work and had to be brought up by the mistress of the household. Not all slaves went to houses.

Some also sold themselves to temples or were assigned to temples by the king. Slave trading was not very popular until later in Ancient Egypt.

Afterwards, slave trades sprang up all over Egypt. However, there was barely any worldwide trade. Rather, the individual dealers seem to have approached their customers personally.

Only slaves with special traits were traded worldwide. Prices of slaves changed with time.

Slaves with a special skill were more valuable than those without one.

Slaves had plenty of jobs that they could be assigned to. Some had domestic jobs, like taking care of children, cooking, brewing, or cleaning. Some were gardeners or field hands in stables.

They could be craftsmen or even get a higher status.

For example, if they could write, they could become a manager of the master’s estate.

Captive slaves were mostly assigned to the temples or a king, and they had to do manual labour. The worst thing that could happen to a slave was being assigned to the quarries and mines.

Private ownership of slaves, captured in war and given by the king to their captor, certainly occurred at the beginning of the Eighteenth Dynasty Sales of slaves occurred in the Twenty-fifth Dynasty, and contracts of servitude survive from the Twenty-sixth Dynasty and from the reign of Darius: apparently such a contract then required the consent of the slave.


Slaves working in a mine of Laurium

Slavery was an accepted practice in ancient Greece, as in other societies of the time. Acquired through war and conquest, kidnap and purchase, slaves (douloi) were simply amongst life’s losers. Some Ancient Greek writers (including, most notably, Aristotle[4]SLAVES SEE: paragraph 1 SEE URL https://www.ancient.eu/article/483/ancient-greek-society/.) which propounded the belief that slaves were demonstrably inferior, a product of their environment and inherited characteristics. Greeks persuaded themselves that it was they who had the best environment and characteristics and the purest bloodline and were, therefore, born to rule.

This paradigm was notably questioned in Socratic dialogues; the Stoics produced the first recorded condemnation of slavery. 

The principal use of slaves was in agriculture, but they were also used in stone quarries or mines, and as domestic servants.

Estimates of the slave population in the Greek world range from between 15 and 40% of the total population[5]SLAVES SEE: paragraph 2 SEE URL https://www.ancient.eu/article/483/ancient-greek-society/. Athens had the largest slave population, with as many as 80,000 in the 5th and 6th centuries BC, with an average of three or four slaves per household, except in poor families. A defence speech[6]SLAVES SEE: paragraph 2 SEE URL https://www.ancient.eu/article/483/ancient-greek-society/ made in a court case in Athens by Lysias, and hints from others such as Demosthenes, strongly suggest that if every citizen did not have slaves then they certainly desired them and to be a slave owner was considered a measure of social status. Slaves were not only owned by private individuals but also by the state, which used them in municipal projects such as mining or, as in the case of Athens, the police force.Slaves were legally prohibited from participating in politics, which was reserved for citizens.

The relationship between slaves and owners seems to have been much as in any other period of history with a mix of contempt, distrust, and abuse from the owners and contempt, theft, and sabotage from the enslaved. Source material is always from the viewpoint of the slave owner but there are references in literature, particularly in Greek comedy, of friendship and loyalty in at least some owner-slave relationships. Whilst the flogging of slaves is commonly referred to in Greek plays, there were also treatises written extolling the benefits of kindness and incentives in slave management.[7]SLAVES SEE: paragraph 3 SEE URL https://www.ancient.eu/article/483/ancient-greek-society/

Slaves worked in all spheres and over 200 hundred occupations have been identified. These include working in the home, in agriculture, industry workshops (e.g.: making shields, food, clothes and perfumes), mines, transport, retail, banking, entertainment, in the armed forces as attendants to their owner or as baggage carriers, as rowers in naval vessels or even as fighters. Farms were generally small affairs with even the richest citizens tending to own several small farms rather than one large estate, therefore, slaves were not concentrated into large groups as in later ancient societies[8]SLAVES SEE: paragraph 4 SEE URL https://www.ancient.eu/article/483/ancient-greek-society/

For slaves there was, at least for some, a glimmer of hope to one day achieve their freedom. There are instances when slaves, particularly those involved in manufacturing and industry, living separately from their owners and given a certain financial independence, could pay for their freedom with money they had saved. Also, slaves in the army were sometimes given their freedom by the state following their victorious exploits.[9]SLAVES SEE: paragraph 5 SEE URL https://www.ancient.eu/article/483/ancient-greek-society/

Modern historiographical practice distinguishes between chattel slavery (personal possession, where the slave was regarded as a piece of property as opposed to a mobile member of society) versus land-bonded groups such as the penestae of Thessaly or the Spartan helots, who were more like medieval serfs (an enhancement to real estate). The chattel slave is an individual deprived of liberty and forced to submit to an owner, who may buy, sell, or lease them like any other chattel.

The academic study of slavery in ancient Greece is beset by significant methodological problems. Documentation is disjointed and very fragmented, focusing primarily on the city-state of Athens. No treatises are specifically devoted to the subject, and jurisprudence was interested in slavery only as much as it provided a source of revenue. Greek comedies and tragedies represented stereotypes, while iconography made no substantial differentiation between slaves and craftsmen.

Athens had various categories of slave, such as:

■ House-slaves, living in their master’s home and working at home, on the land or in a shop.

■ Freelance slaves, who didn’t live with their master but worked in their master’s shop or fields and paid him taxes from money they got from their own properties (insofar as society allowed slaves to own property).

■ Public slaves, who worked as police-officers, ushers, secretaries, street-sweepers, etc.

■ War-captives (andrapoda) who served primarily in unskilled tasks at which they could be chained: for example, rowers in commercial ships, or miners.


Rome differed from Greek city-states in allowing freed slaves to become Roman citizens. After manumission, a slave who had belonged to a citizen enjoyed not only passive freedom from ownership, but active political freedom (libertas), including the right to vote, though he could not run for public office.

During the Republic, Roman military expansion was a major source of slaves. Besides manual labour, slaves performed many domestic services, and might be employed at highly skilled jobs and professions.

Teachers, accountants, and physicians were often slaves. Greek slaves in particular might be highly educated. Unskilled slaves, or those condemned to slavery as punishment, worked on farms, in mines, and at mills.


Slavery in the Roman World[10]by Mark Cartwright published on 01 November 2013 SEE URL: https://www.ancient.eu/article/629/slavery-in-the-roman-world/

Slavery was an ever-present feature of the Roman world. Slaves served in households, agriculture, mines, the military, manufacturing workshops, construction and a wide range of services within the city. As many as 1 in 3 of the population in Italy or 1 in 5 across the empire were slaves and upon this foundation of forced labour was built the entire edifice of the Roman state and society.

Slavery as An Accepted Reality

Slavery, that is complete mastery (dominium) of one individual over another, was so imbedded in Roman culture that slaves became almost invisible and there was certainly no feeling of injustice in this situation on the part of the rulers. Inequality in power, freedom and the control of resources was an accepted part of life and went right back to the mythology of Jupiter overthrowing Saturn. As K.Bradley eloquently puts it, ‘freedom…was not a general right but a select privilege’ (Potter, 627). Further, it was believed that the freedom of some was only possible because others were enslaved. Slavery, was, therefore, not considered an evil but a necessity by Roman citizens. The fact that slaves were taken from the losers in battle (and their subsequent offspring) was also a helpful justification and confirmation of Rome‘s (perceived) cultural superiority and divine right to rule over others and exploit those persons for absolutely any purpose whatsoever.

Aside from the huge numbers of slaves taken as war captives (e.g. 75,000 from the First Punic War alone) slaves were also acquired via piracytrade, brigandage and, of course, as the offspring of slaves as a child born to a slave mother (vernae) automatically became a slave irrespective of who the father was. Slave markets proliferated, perhaps one of the most notorious being the market on Delos, which was continuously supplied by the Cilician pirates. Slave markets existed in most large towns, though, and here, in a public square, slaves were paraded with signs around their necks advertising their virtues for prospective buyers. Traders specialised in the commodity, for example, one A. Kapreilius Timotheus traded throughout the Mediterranean.

Map of the Roman Empire in 125 CE:

A map of the Roman Empire and Europe in 125 CE, at the time of Roman emperor Hadrian.

“Barbarian” names and locations are given as found in the works of Tacitus (written c. 100 CE).

The Status of Slaves

The number and proportion of slaves in society varied over time and place, for example, in Augustan Italy the figure was as high as 30% whilst in Roman Egypt slaves made up only 10% of the total population. Although slave ownership was wider than in the Greek world, it remained a prerogative of the reasonably well-off. A more modest Roman business owner, artisan or military veteran might own one or two slaves whilst for the very wealthy, the number of slaves owned could run into the hundreds. For example, in the 1st century CE, the prefect L. Pedanius Secundus had 400 slaves merely for his private residence.

Slaves were the lowest class of society and even freed criminals had more rights. Slaves had no rights at all in fact and certainly no legal status or individuality. They could not create relations or families, nor could they own property. To all intents and purposes they were merely the property of a particular owner, just like any other piece of property – a building, a chair or a vase – the only difference was that they could speak. The only time there was anywhere near equality for all persons in Roman society was during the Saturnalia festival when, for a few days only, slaves were given some freedoms usually denied them.

Slaves were, for many of the Roman elite, a status symbol and, therefore, the more (and the more exotic) one had, the better, so that wealthy Romans very often appeared in public accompanied by an entourage of as many as 15 slaves.

The Roles of Slaves

Slave labour was used in all areas of Roman life except public office. In addition, slaves were often mixed with free labour as employers used whatever human resources were available and necessary to get a job done. If one could not find enough slaves or skills were needed which only paid labour could provide, then labourers and slaves would work together. In the agricultural sector such a mix of labour was particularly common as the work was seasonal so that at harvest time paid labour was brought in to supplement the slave staff because to maintain such an extended work force year-round was not economically viable.


Slaves, then, were employed by private individuals or the state and used in agriculture (especially the grain, vine and olive sectors), in mines (especially for gold and silver), manufacturing industries, transportation, education (where they brought their specialist knowledge of such topics as philosophy and medicine to the Roman world), the military (principally as baggage porters and camp assistants), the service industries (from food to accounting), in the private home, in the construction industry, on road-building projects, in public baths, and even to perform tasks in certain cult rituals.

The lot of agricultural slaves (vincti) was probably one of the worst as they were usually housed in barrack buildings (ergastula) in poor, prison-like conditions and often kept in chains. Pompeii has revealed such work gangs chained together in death as they were in life. Other skeletal remains from Pompeii have also revealed the chronic arthritis and distortion of limbs that could only have been produced by extreme overwork and malnutrition.

Winning Freedom

There was, at least for a small minority, the possibility of a slave achieving freedom to become a freedman or woman, and this incentive was fully exploited by slave owners. That manumission occurred is attested by the many ancient references, both in literature and art, to the presence of freed slaves. Freedom could be granted by the owner but in most cases was actually bought by the slaves themselves, allowing the owner to replenish his workforce. Freedom could be absolute or might be limited and include certain obligations to the former owner such as inheritance rights or the payment of a portion (statuliber) of their earned assets (peculium). The freed slave often took the first two names of their former master, illustrative that manumission was rare, as the family name held great importance in Roman society so that only the most trusted individual would be allowed to ‘wear’ it.

Children of a freed woman would not have any limits on their rights (although social status might be affected in terms of reputation). Also, former slaves could become citizens (especially from the Augustan period) and even become slave owners themselves. One famous example was the freedman C. Caecilius Isidorus who would eventually own over 4,000 slaves. This prize of freedom and integration back into society was also used by owners and authority to convince slaves of the benefits of working hard and obediently.

Slave Rebellions

There is some evidence that slaves were better treated in the Imperial period as fewer wars resulted in slaves being in less ready supply and, therefore, they increased in value and it was recognised that harsh treatment was counter-productive so that there were even laws which provided against excessively cruel owners. However, in practical terms, one can imagine, that owners were at liberty to treat their property as they thought best and the only real constraint was the desire to maintain the value of the asset and not provoke a drastic and collective reaction from those enslaved. Indeed, treatises were written advising the best methods of management regarding slaves – what food and clothing was best, which were the most efficient methods of motivation (e.g. giving time off or better food rations), and how to create divisions amongst slaves so that they did not form dangerous protest groups.

Sometimes, however, these careful plans and strategies proved ineffective and slaves could turn against their owners. Undoubtedly, the most famous examples of such uprisings were those led by Eunus in Sicily in 135 BCE and Spartacus in southern Italy in 73 BCE but slaves could protest against their lot in life in much more subtle ways such as working more slowly, stealing, truancy, and sabotage. We have no records from the viewpoint of slaves themselves but it is not difficult to imagine that, faced with the personal risks to oneself and the relations one might have developed, there was not much a slave could do to change their lot other than hope that one day freedom could be legitimately won.

The case of Spartacus, then, was an unusual but spectacular one. It was not an attempt to overthrow the entire system of slavery but rather the actions of a disaffected group willing to take the risk to fight for their own freedom. Spartacus was a Thracian gladiator who had served in the Roman army and he became the leader of a slave rebellion beginning at the gladiator school of Capua. Supplementing their numbers with slaves from the surrounding countryside (and even some free labourers) an army was assembled which numbered between 70,000 and 120,000. Amazingly, the slave army successively defeated two Roman armies in 73 BCE. Then in 72 BCE Spartacus defeated both consuls and fought his way to Cisalpine Gaul. It may have been Spartacus’ intention to disperse at this point but with his commanders preferring to continue to ravage Italy, he once more moved south. More victories followed but, let down by pirates who had promised him transportation to Sicily, the rebellion was finally crushed by Marcus Licinius Crassus at Lucania in 71 BCE. Spartacus fell in the battle and the survivors, 6000 of them, were crucified in a forceful message to all Roman slaves that any chance of winning freedom through violence was futile.


The entire Roman state and cultural apparatus was, then, built on the exploitation of one part of the population to provide for the other part. Regarded as no more than a commodity, any good treatment a slave received was largely only to preserve their value as a worker and as an asset in the case of future sale. No doubt, some slave owners were more generous than others and there was, in a few cases, the possibility of earning one’s freedom but the harsh day-to-day reality of the vast majority of Roman slaves was certainly an unenviable one.

Original Source: Date-stamped: 2013 NOV 01 | Author: Mark Cartwright | Article Title: Slavery in the Roman World | Article Link: ancient.eu



In remarkable contrast to the other major ancient cultures of the region, the Achaemenid Persians, during the time of Cyrus the Great, formally banned most slavery of non-combatants within the empire. Indeed, Persepolis, the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Persians, was built with paid labour.

#4cminewswire, #Slavery, #Slaves, #4cminews, #4CMiTV, #4CM2020JUN27,


1 The Code of Hammurabi was one of the earliest and most complete written legal codes and was proclaimed by the Babylonian king Hammurabi, who reigned from 1792 to 1750 B.C. Hammurabi expanded the city-state of Babylon along the Euphrates River to unite all of southern Mesopotamia SEE URL: https://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/hammurabi#
2 SEE URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hittites
3 SEE URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hittites#Geography
4 SLAVES SEE: paragraph 1 SEE URL https://www.ancient.eu/article/483/ancient-greek-society/
5, 6 SLAVES SEE: paragraph 2 SEE URL https://www.ancient.eu/article/483/ancient-greek-society/
7 SLAVES SEE: paragraph 3 SEE URL https://www.ancient.eu/article/483/ancient-greek-society/
8 SLAVES SEE: paragraph 4 SEE URL https://www.ancient.eu/article/483/ancient-greek-society/
9 SLAVES SEE: paragraph 5 SEE URL https://www.ancient.eu/article/483/ancient-greek-society/
10 by Mark Cartwright published on 01 November 2013 SEE URL: https://www.ancient.eu/article/629/slavery-in-the-roman-world/

Made in China 2025 (MIC25)

RELATED TOPIC: BRI (Belt Road Initiative)

RELATED TOPIC: “Made in China 2025” (MIC25)


2018 MAY 01 Strategic plan of “Made in China 2025” and its implementation

ARTICLE TITLE: What is ‘Made in China 2025’ — and why is it a threat to Trump’s trade goals?
Article Link: washingtonpost.com
Date-stamped: 2018 MAY 03 | Time-stamped: 20:30 p.m. GMT+8
Author: Kristen Hopewell

ARTICLE TITLE: Evolving Made in China 2025  
Article Link: merics.org
Date-stamped: 2019 FEB 07
Author: Max J. Zenglein and Anna Holzmann

ARTICLE TITLE: “Made in China 2025” Unmade?
Article Link: macropolo.org
Date-stamped: 2019 AUG 20
Author: Eliot Chen

ARTICLE: Made in China 2025 – A Halftime Analysis [1]Original Source – https://www.chinatechblog.org/blog/madeinchina2025, Date-stamped – 2020 MAR 03, Author – Maximilian Nadicksbernd

ARTICLE TITLE: How Will the Coronavirus Impact Xi’s ‘Made in China 2025′ Plan?
Article Link: medium.com
Date-stamped: 2020 MAY 12
Author: Edward Zhang


1 Original Source – https://www.chinatechblog.org/blog/madeinchina2025, Date-stamped – 2020 MAR 03, Author – Maximilian Nadicksbernd

2018 JUL 30 What Is China’S Belt And Road Initiative?

THE PROJECT IS OFTEN DESCRIBED: as a 21st century silk road, made up of a “belt” of overland corridors and a maritime “road” of shipping lanes.


Beijing’s multibillion dollar Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) has been called a Chinese Marshall Plan, a state-backed campaign for global dominance, a stimulus package for a slowing economy, and a massive marketing campaign for something that was already happening – Chinese investment around the world. 

Over the five years since President Xi Jinping announced his grand plan to connect Asia, Africa and Europe, the initiative has morphed into a broad catchphrase to describe almost all aspects of Chinese engagement abroad.

Belt and Road, or yi dai yi lu, is a “21st century silk road,” confusingly made up of a “belt” of overland corridors and a maritime “road” of shipping lanes.

From South-east Asia to Eastern Europe and Africa, Belt and Road includes 71 countries that account for half the world’s population and a quarter of global GDP.

Everything from a Trump-affiliated theme park in Indonesia to a jazz camp in Chongqing have been branded Belt and Road. Countries from Panama to Madagascar, South Africa to New Zealand, have officially pledged support.


The Belt and Road Initiative is expected to cost more than $1tn[1]SEE URL: https://www.morganstanley.com/ideas/china-belt-and-road (£760bn), although there are differing estimates as to how much money has been spent to date. According to one analysis, China has invested more than $210bn, the majority in Asia.

But China’s efforts abroad don’t stop there. Belt and Road also means that Chinese firms are engaging in construction work across the globe on an unparalleled scale.

GRAPH Total of Contracts Awarded to CCP:

To date, Chinese companies have secured more than $340bn in construction contracts along the Belt and Road.

However, China’s dominance in the construction sector comes at the expense of local contractors in partner countries.

The vast sums raked in by Chinese firms are at odds with the official rhetoric that Belt and Road is open to global participation and suggest that the initiative is also motivated by factors other than trade, such as China’s need to combat excess capacity at home.


More recently, governments from Malaysia to Pakistan are starting to rethink the costs of these projects. Sri Lanka, where the government leased a port to a Chinese company for 99 years after struggling to make repayments, is a cautionary tale.

Earlier this year, the Center for Global Development found eight more Belt and Road countries at serious risk of not being able to repay their loans.

In eight countries, Belt and Road loans could increase the risk of debt distress …

GRAPH 2 Eight Countries, Belt and Road Loans:

The affected nations – Djibouti, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, the Maldives, Mongolia, Montenegro, Pakistan and Tajikistan – are among the poorest in their respective regions and will owe more than half of all their foreign debt to China.

Critics worry China could use “debt-trap diplomacy”[2]SEE URL: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/may/15/warning-sounded-over-chinas-debtbook-diplomacy to extract strategic concessions – such as over territorial disputes in the South China Sea or silence on human rights violations. In 2011, China wrote off an undisclosed debt owed by Tajikistan in exchange for 1,158 sq km (447 sq miles) of disputed territory.

“There are some extreme cases where China lends into very high risk environments, and it would seem that the motivation is something different. In these situations the leverage China has as lender is used for purposes unrelated to the original loan,” said Scott Morris, one of the authors of the Washington Centre for Global Development report.


As Belt and Road expands in scope so do concerns it is a form of economic imperialism that gives China too much leverage over other countries, often those that are smaller and poorer.

Jane Golley, an associate professor at Australian National University, describes it as an attempt to win friends and influence people. “They’ve presented this very grand initiative which has frightened people,” says Golley. “Rather than using their economic power to make friends, they’ve drummed up more fear that it will be about influence.”

According to Shan Wenhua, a professor at Jiaotong University in Xi’an, Xi’s signature foreign policy is “the first major attempt by the Chinese government to take a proactive approach toward international cooperation … to take responsibility.”

Some worry expanded Chinese commercial presence around the world will eventually lead to expanded military presence. Last year, China established its first overseas military base in Djibouti. Analysts say almost all the ports and other transport infrastructure being built can be dual-use for commercial and military purposes.

“If it can carry goods, it can carry troops,” says Jonathan Hillman, director of the Reconnecting Asia project at CSIS.

China’s “maritime silk road” also pushes its strategic advantage at sea

Maritime Silk Road GLOBE

Others worry China will export its political model. Herbert Wiesner, general secretary of Germany’s PEN Center, says human rights are being “left in the ditches by the sides of the New Silk Road”.


Belt and Road is likely to continue, not least because these projects signal loyalty to Xi. The initiative has been enshrined in the Chinese communist party’s constitution, which also eliminated term limits, leaving Xi room to continue Belt and Road for as long as he wants.

It also gives disparate Chinese projects overseas the veneer of being part of a grand strategic plan, according to Winslow Robertson, a specialist in China-Africa relations. It is not a centralised initiative, so much as a brand, he says.

“Who determines what is a Belt and Road project or a Belt and Road country? Nobody is sure. Everything and nothing is Belt and Road.”


Not all of the most ambitious Belt and Road projects are about hard infrastructure. China plans to set up international courts, in Shenzhen and Xi’an, the former hub of the original Silk Road, to resolve commercial disputes related to Belt and Road.

“It’s a reminder BRI is about more than roads, railways, and other hard infrastructure,” said Jonathan Hillman, director of the Reconnecting Asia project at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington. “It’s also a vehicle for China to write new rules, establish institutions that reflect Chinese interests, and reshape ‘soft’ infrastructure.”

Officials have said the courts, to be based on the judiciary, arbitration and mediation agencies of China’s Supreme People’s Court in Beijing, will follow international rules and will invite legal experts from outside China to participate.

Legal experts say the courts will likely be modelled on the Dubai International Financial Centre Courts and the International Commercial Court in Singapore, which has already struck an agreement with China to resolve Belt and Road-related disputes.

But critics of the independence of the country’s judicial system, which traditionally answers to China’s ruling communist party, worry the courts will favour Chinese parties over foreign firms.

RELATED: More from the Cities of the new Silk Road series 

Tags: 4cminewswire, 4cminews, BRI, China, Panama, Madagascar, South Africa, New Zealand, Dubai, Singapore, Beijing, Herbert Wiesner, Jonathan Hillman, Djibouti, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Maldives, Mongolia, Montenegro, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Xi Jinping, Marshall Plan, Asia, Africa and Europe, 4CM2020JUL30,

Hashtag: #4cminewswire, #4cminews, #BRI, #China, #Panama, #Madagascar, #SouthAfrica, #NewZealand, #Dubai, #Singapore, #Beijing, #HerbertWiesner, #JonathanHillman, #Djibouti, #Kyrgyzstan, #Laos, #Maldives, #Mongolia, #Montenegro, #Pakistan, #Tajikistan, #XiJinping, #MarshallPlan, #Asia, #Africa, #Europe, #4CM2020JUL30,

Original Source: Date-stamped: 2018 JUL 30 | Author: Lily Kuo and Niko Kommenda | Article Title: What Is China'S Belt And Road Initiative? | Article Link: theguardian.com


1 SEE URL: https://www.morganstanley.com/ideas/china-belt-and-road
2 SEE URL: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/may/15/warning-sounded-over-chinas-debtbook-diplomacy

2018 MAR 05 Will China’s Belt and Road Initiative Push Vulnerable Countries into a Debt Crisis?

As China’s Communist Party paves the way for President Xi Jinping’s indefinite leadership, the international community should expect the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI)—President Xi’s signature global infrastructure plan spanning Asia, Europe, and Africa—to be further cemented as China’s primary strategy of global engagement for years to come. In a new CGD paper, we assess the likelihood of debt problems in the 68 countries we identify as potential BRI borrowers.

THE BIG TAKEAWAY: BRI is unlikely to cause a systemic debt problem, yet the initiative will likely run into instances of debt problems among select participating countries—requiring better standards and improved debt practices from China.

Here’s what we found:

I: BRI creates the potential for significantly increased debt sustainability problems in at least eight countries. In BRI countries vulnerable to debt distress, we incorporate an identified BRI pipeline of project lending to estimate changes in a country’s public debt and concentration of debt with China as a creditor. Along these two dimensions, we identify eight countries of particular concern where China, as the dominant creditor, will be in the key position to address problems that may arise:

Immediate Marginal Impact of BRI Project Lending Pipeline

II: Looking at the entire range of countries in the initiative, the risk of debt distress is not widespread. The majority of BRI countries will likely avoid problems of debt distress due to BRI projects:

Belt and Road Initiative Investments and Debt Riskiness by Country

III: China should demonstrate its commitment to a responsible role on the international stage by adopting and advancing multilateral standards for debt sustainability and improving debt management practices. China’s track record managing debt distress has been problematic, and unlike the world’s other leading government creditors, China has not signed on to well-established rules of the road when it comes to avoiding unsustainable lending and addressing debt problems when they arise. Given the likelihood of debt problems in select cases, we make the following recommendations for how China and major BRI partners can better align with existing disciplines and standards:

Multilateralize the Belt and Road Initiative: Currently, institutions like the World Bank and Asian Development Bank are lending their reputations to the initiative while only seeking to obtain operational standards that will apply to a very narrow slice of BRI projects: those financed by the MDBs themselves. Before going further, the MDBs should press the Chinese government when it comes to the lending standards that will apply to any BRI project, no matter the lender.

Consider additional mechanisms to agree to lending standards: We suggest a post-Paris Club approach to collective creditor action, the implementation of a China-led G-20 sustainable financing agenda, and the use of China’s aid dollars to mitigate risks of default.

Original Source: Date-stamped: 2018 MAR 05 | Author: John Hurley, Scott Morris and Gailyn Portelance | Article Title: Will China's Belt and Road Initiative Push Vulnerable Countries into a Debt Crisis? | Article Link: cgdev.org

Hashtags: #4cminewswire, #4cminews, #China, #BRI, #DebtDistress, #Infrastructure, #Asia, #Europe, #Africa, #JohnHurley, #ScottMorris, #GailynPortelance, 4CM2018MAY05

Tags: 4cminewswire, 4cminews, China, BRI, Debt Distress, Infrastructure, Asia, Europe, Africa, John Hurley, Scott Morris, Gailyn Portelance, 4CM2018MAY05

BRI 04: 2018 MAR 04 Whitepaper: Examining The Debt Implications Of The Belt And Road Initiative From A Policy Perspective


China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) hopes to deliver trillions of dollars in infrastructure financing to Asia, Europe, and Africa.

If the initiative follows Chinese practices to date for infrastructure financing, which often entail lending to sovereign borrowers, then BRI raises the risk of debt distress in some borrower countries.

This paper assesses the likelihood of debt problems in the 68 countries identified as potential BRI borrowers. We conclude that eight countries are at particular risk of debt distress based on an identified pipeline of project lending associated with BRI.

Because this indebtedness also suggests a higher concentration in debt owed to official and quasi-official Chinese creditors, we examine Chinese policies and practices related to sustainable financing and the management of debt problems in borrower countries.

Based on this evidence, we offer recommendations to improve Chinese policy in these areas. The recommendations are offered to Chinese policymakers directly, as well as to BRI’s bilateral and multilateral partners, including the IMF and World Bank.

Download PDF: PAGES 39 (1 MB)

[pdf-embedder url=”http://4cminews.com/wp-content/uploads/examining-debt-implications-belt-and-road-initiative-policy-perspective.pdf”]
Original Source: Date-stamped: 2018 MAR 04 | Author: John Hurley , Scott Morris & Gailyn Portelance | Article Title: Whitepaper: Examining The Debt Implications Of The Belt And Road Initiative From A Policy Perspective | Article Link: cgdev.org

Tags: 4cminewswire, 4cminews, BRI 04, China, BRI, Belt Road Initiative, John Hurley, Scott Morris, Gailyn Portelance, IMF, World Bank, 4CM2018MAY04

Hashtags: #4cminewswire, #4cminews, #BRI04, #China, #BRI, #BeltRoadInitiative, #JohnHurley, #ScottMorris, #GailynPortelance, #IMF, #WorldBank, 4CM2018MAY04

RELATED: Will China’s Belt and Road Initiative Push Vulnerable Countries into a Debt Crisis?


China’s signature foreign-policy project is a failure that the U.S. shouldn’t copy.

China's President Xi Jinping, Papua New Guinea's Governor-General Bob Dadae, and Papua New Guinea's Chief of Defense Major General Gilbert Toropo attend a welcome ceremony for Xi's state visit in Port Moresby on Nov. 16 ahead of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Summit. (David Gray/AFP/Getty Images)

The headlines coming out of this year’s APEC conference in Papua New Guinea focused on the conflict between America and China that kept the forum from issuing a joint communiqué. Less noticed were two short memorandums released on the sidelines of the conference by the island nations of Vanuatu and Tonga. In return for renegotiating existing debt, both agreed to become the newest participants—following other Pacific nations like Papua New Guinea and Fiji—in Chinese President Xi Jinping’s signature foreign-policy venture, the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI).

As Xi’s trillion-dollar development strategy has snaked away from the Eurasian heartland and into the South Pacific, Western Africa, and Latin America, concern has grown. Many Americans fear that the Belt and Road Initiative is an extension of efforts by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) to undermine the security and economic architecture of the international order. China’s growing largesse, they worry, comes largely at the expense of international institutions and American influence.

This angst lies behind another announcement made at last month’s APEC gathering: Australia, Japan, and the United States declared that they had formed their own trilateral investment initiative to help meet infrastructure needs in the Indo-Pacific.

FOR SOME THIS IS NOT ENOUGH: In its most recent report to the United States Congress, the bipartisan U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission recommended that Congress create an additional fund “to provide additional bilateral assistance for countries that are a target of or vulnerable to Chinese economic or diplomatic pressure.” This is the wrong response to the Belt and Road Initiative. 

IGNORE THE HYPE: For the Chinese, this initiative has been a strategic blunder. By buying into the flawed idea that barrels of money are all that is needed to solve complex geopolitical problems, China has committed a colossal error. Xi’s dictatorship makes it almost impossible for the country to admit this mistake or abandon his pet project. The United States and its allies gain nothing from making China’s blunders their own.

In Xi’s speeches, the phrase most closely associated with the Belt and Road Initiative is “community of common destiny.” Xi’s use of this term is meant to link the BRI to the deeper purpose party leaders have articulated for the CCP over the last three decades. China’s leaders believe that not only is it their “historic mission” to bring about China’s “national rejuvenation” as the world’s most prestigious power, but that China has a unique role to play in the development of “political civilization” writ large.

It is the Chinese, Xi maintains (as Hu and Jiang did before him), who have adapted socialism to modern conditions, and in so doing have created a unique Chinese answer to “the problems facing mankind.” Though this answer began in China, Xi is clear that the time has come for “Chinese wisdom and a Chinese approach” to benefit those outside of China.

The Belt and Road Initiative is intended to do just that. By using the Chinese model of socialism to develop the world’s poorer regions, the initiative justifies Xi’s grandiose claims about the party’s historic mission on the international stage.

To match these lofty aims, Chinese academics and policy analysts at prestigious party think tanks have articulated more down-to-earth goals for the initiative. According to them, the BRI promises to integrate China’s internal markets with those of its neighbors.

Doing so will bring its neighbors closer to China geopolitically and bring stability to the region. By increasing economic activity in China’s border regions, such as Xinjiang and Tibet, the Belt and Road Initiative will lessen the appeal that separatist ideology might have to the residents.

Another projected benefit is the energy security that will come through the construction of BRI-funded transport routes. Finally, by articulating and then following through on an initiative that puts common development over power politics, China will gain an advantage over other major countries (read: Japan and the United States) who present the world as a black-and-white competition for hegemony. The community of common destiny, these analysts have claimed, is a community that will immensely benefit China.

As the Belt and Road Initiative is only five years old (and many of its main members have been involved for a far shorter time) its full results cannot yet be judged. However, a preliminary assessment can be offered for BRI projects in South and Southeast Asia, the region described by Chinese leaders as the “main axis” of the Belt and Road Initiative.

It is here that BRI investment is strongest and has been around longest. The picture is not promising. The hundreds of billions spent in these countries has not produced returns for investors, nor political returns for the party.

Whether Chinese leaders actually seek a financial return from the Belt and Road Initiative has always been questionable—the sovereign debt of 27 BRI countries is regarded as “junk” by the three main ratings agencies, while another 14 have no rating at all.

Investment decisions often seem to be driven by geopolitical needs instead of sound financial sense. In South and Southeast Asia expensive port development is an excellent case study. A 2016 CSIS report judged that none of the Indian Ocean port projects funded through the BRI have much hope of financial success.

They were likely prioritized for their geopolitical utility. Projects less clearly connected to China’s security needs have more difficulty getting off the ground: the research firm RWR Advisory Group notes that 270 BRI infrastructure projects in the region (or 32 percent of the total value of the whole) have been put on hold because of problems with practicality or financial viability. There is a vast gap between what the Chinese have declared they will spend and what they have actually spent.

There is also a gap between how BRI projects are supposed to be chosen and how they actually have been selected. Xi and other party leaders have characterized BRI investment in Eurasia as following along defined “economic corridors” that would directly connect China to markets and peoples in other parts of the continent. By these means the party hopes to channel capital into areas where it will have the largest long-term benefit and will make cumulative infrastructure improvements possible.

Original Source: Date-stamped: 2018 DEC 06 | Time-stamped: 3:29 PM | Author: Tanner Greer | Article Title: One Belt, One Road, One Big Mistake | Article Link: foreignpolicy.com

Tag: 4cminewswire, 4cminews, CCP, BRI, China, Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Vanuatu, Tonga, Xi Jinping, Eurasia, South Pacific, Western Africa, Latin America, Australia, Japan #4CM2018DEC06,

Hashtag: #4cminewswire, #4cminews, #CCP, #BRI, #China, #PapuaNewGuinea, #Fiji, #Vanuatu, #Tonga, #XiJinping, #Eurasia, #SouthPacific, #WesternAfrica, #LatinAmerica, #Australia, #Japan, #4CM2018DEC06,

1961 JAN 17 34th WARNING by Dwight Eisenhower about Secret Societies & Military Industrial Complex

Quote: We face a hostile ideology-global in scope, atheistic in character, ruthless in purpose, and insidious in method. Unhappily the danger it poses promises to be of indefinite duration.

Quote: We must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist.

Quote: We should take nothing for granted only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing of huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals, so that security and liberty may prosper together

Speech Transcript: 1961-JAN-17-Eisenhower-Farewell-Address-TRANSCRIPT.pdf

Hashtag: #Eisenhower, #MilitaryIndustrialComplex, #SecretSocieties, #GlobalIdeology, #WorldOrder

CBC 041: William Densberger (Col.)

Clinton Body Count (CBC)

Name: William Densberger (Col.) (Bill Clinton’s Bodyguards & Associates 1/4)


CBC 041: William Densberger (Col.)

V Corps Chief of Operations and Plans,


Other Team Members Were:

(Maj. Gen. Jarrett Robertson)

[Deputy Commanding General, V Corps, Europe]

(Col. Robert Kelly)

[V Corps Chief of Intelligence]

(Spec. Gary Rhodes, Jr)

[Crew Chief]

Robert Horan | @Robby12692 | Jun 11, 2018

Details: On February 23, 1993, a UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter crashed in Weisbaden, Germany.

A TEAM of Four Bodyguards & Associates of Bill Clinton‘s. KILLED!

Col. William Densberger [V Corps Chief of Operations and Plans, Europe] Was killed in the Mysterious UH-60 Blackhawk Helicopter Crash.