List of subcamps of Auschwitz

WWII

x

# Name of the subcamp Location Life time Number of prisoners Tenant
Sub-camps at livestock farms
1. Harmense (Geflügelfarm) Harmęże Dec/41 Jan/45 About 150 prisoners For purposes of KL
2. Budy (Wirtschaftshof) Brzeszcze Apr/42 Jan/45 700-800 prisoners For purposes of KL
3. Babitz (Wirtschaftshof) Babice near Oświęcim Mar/43 Jan/45 About 340 prisoners For purposes of KL
4. Birkenau (Wirtschaftshof) Brzezinka near Oświęcim 1943 Jan/45 More than 200 prisoners For purposes of KL
5. Rajsko (Gärtnerei) Rajsko Jun/44 Jan/45 About 300 female prisoners For purposes of KL and SS research
6. Plawy (Wirtschaftshof) Pławy Dec/44 Jan/45 About 200 prisoners For purposes of KL
Sub-camps at industrial plants
7. Golleschau Goleszów Jul/42 Jan/45 About 1,000 prisoners Ostdeutsche Baustoffwerke GmbH
8. Jawischowitz Jawiszowice Aug/42 Jan/45 More than 2,500 prisoners Herman Göring Werke
9. Chelmek (Aussenkommando) Chełmek Oct/42 Dec/42 About 150 prisoners Ota Schlesische Schuhwerke (“Bata”)
10. Monowitz Buna-Werke [3] Monowice near Oświęcim Oct/42 Jan/45 10,223 prisoners in three IG Farben locations as of 17 January 1945.[4] IG Farbenindustrie
11. Eintrachthütte Świętochłowice May/43 Jan/45 1,374 prisoners Berghütte
12. Neu-Dachs Jaworzno Jun/43 Jan/45 More than 3,500 prisoners Energieversorgung Oberschlesien Aktiengesellschaft (EVO)
13. Fürstengrube Wesoła near Mysłowice Sep/43 Jan/45 700-1,200 prisoners IG Farbenindustrie
14. Janinagrube (Gute Hoffnung) Libiąż Sep/43 Jan/45 877 prisoners IG Farbenindustrie
15. Lagischa Łagisza, now Będzin Sep/43 Sep/44 About 1,000 prisoners Energie-Versorgung Oberschlesien AG
16. Günthergrube Lędziny Feb/44 Jan/45 300-600 prisoners IG Farbenindustrie
17. Gleiwitz I Gliwice Mar/44 Jan/45 About 1,300 prisoners Reichsbahnausbesserungswerk
18. Laurahütte Siemianowice Śląskie Mar/Apr/44 Jan/45 1,000 prisoners Rheenmetall Borsig AG
19. Blechhammer Sławięcice near Blachownia Śląska Apr/44 Jan/45 609 prisoners O/S Hydrierwerke AG
20. Bobrek Bobrek near Oświęcim May/44 Jan/45 About 50-213 prisoners and about 50 female prisoners Siemens-Schuckert
21. Gleiwitz II Gliwice May/44 Jan/45 More than 1,000 prisoners Deutsche Gasrusswerke
22. Sosnowitz II Sosnowiec [5] May/44 Jan/45 About 900 prisoners Ost Maschinenbau GmbH (Berghüte)
23. Gleiwitz III Gliwice Jul/44 Jan/45 450-600 prisoners Zieleniewski – Maschinen und Waggonbau GmbH – Krakau
24. Hindenburg Zabrze Aug/44 Jan/45 About 400-500 female prisoners and about 70 prisoners Vereinigte Oberschlesische Hüttenwerke AG (Oberhütten)
25. Trzebinia Trzebionka near Trzebinia Aug/44 Jan/45 600-800 prisoners Erdölrafinerie Trzebinia GmbH
26. Tschechowitz (Bombensucherkommando) Czechowice-Dziedzice Aug/44 Sep/44 About 100 prisoners Reichsbahn
27. Althammer Stara Kuźnia near Halemby, now Ruda Śląska Sep/44 Jan/45 About 500 prisoners
28. Bismarckhütte Chorzów Sep/44 Jan/45 About 200 prisoners Berghütte
29. Charlottengrube Rydułtowy Sep/44 Jan/45 About 1,000 prisoners Hermann Göring Werke
30. Neustadt Prudnik Sep/44 Jan/45 About 400 female prisoners Schlesische Feinweberei AG
31. Tschechowitz-Vacuum Czechowice-Dziedzice Sep/44 Jan/45 About 600 prisoners
32. Hubertushütte Łagiewniki, now Bytom Dec/44 Jan/45 200 prisoners Berghütte-Königs und Birmarckhütte AG
33. Freudenthal Bruntal 1944 Jan/45 About 300 female prisoners Emmerich Machold
34. Lichtewerden Světlá (now Czech Republic) Nov/44 Jan/45 About 300 female prisoners G.A. Buhl und Sohn
Sub-camps with various functions
35. Sosnitz Sośnica near Gliwice Jul/40 Aug/40 About 30 prisoners For purposes of KL
36. Porombka (SS-Hütte) Międzybrodzie Bialskie Oct/Nov/40 Jan/45 About 50 prisoners and about 10 female prisoners For purposes of SS
37. Altdorf Stara Wieś near Pszczyna Oct/42 1943 About 20 prisoners Oberforestamt Pless
38. Radostowitz Radostowice near Pszczyna 1942 1943 About 20 prisoners Oberforestamt Pless
39. Kobier (Aussenkommando) Kobiór 1942 Sep/43 About 150 prisoners Oberforestamt Pless
40. Brünn Brno Oct/43 Apr/45 250-150 prisoners For purposes of SS
41. Sosnowitz (I) Sosnowiec Aug/43 Feb/44 About 100 prisoners
42. Gleiwitz IV Gliwice Jun/44 Jan/45 About 500 prisoners For purposes of SS
43. Kattowitz (Sonderkommando) Katowice Jan/44 Jan/45 10 prisoners Gestapo
44. Bauzug (2 SS) Karlsruhe, after Stuttgart Sep/44 Oct/44 About 500 prisoners living in a train SS-WVHA

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_subcamps_of_Auschwitz

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Khamenei Releases Video Denying Holocaust on International Holocaust Remembrance Day

Seriously feature
khamenei

Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei

As the international community commemorated International Holocaust Remembrance Day on Wednesday

Iranian Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei

released a video claiming that

“it is not clear” if the Holocaust “is a reality or not.

The Farsi video, titledAre The Dark Ages Over?”, was posted to Khamenei’s official website.

An English translation of the video by the Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI) is embedded right.

Who assists the fake Zionist regime? Who supports them? Who clear the road for them? Who stands behind them?

It is Western powers – headed by America that are doing so. This is why they say in their slogans that they are opposed to terrorism and ISIS, they are lying. They say things that are not true. This is ignorance.

No one in European countries dares to speak about holocaust while it is not clear whether the core of this matter is a reality or not. Even if it is a reality, it is not clear how it happened. Speaking about holocaust and expressing doubts about it is considered to be a great sin. If someone does this they stop, arrest, imprison and sue him. This is while they claim to be supporters of freedom. This is the ignorance that exists in the world today.

We should be awake. You dear brothers, dear people of Iran, Muslims in the great Islamic Ummah and officials in different countries should know that we can stand up against the ignorance.

Ayatollah Ali Khamenei

In a March 2014 public address translated by MEMRI, Khamenei said, “It is not clear whether [the Holocaust] is real or not, and if it is real – how it happened.” A crowd of supporters answered his declaration with chants of “Death to America.” In another speech that year, Khamenei claimed that the reality of the Holocaust was “uncertain” before rejecting the idea that the Palestinians should recognize Israel.

UNESCO on Wednesday criticized Iran’s upcoming Holocaust cartoon contest, saying it is “completely opposed to the spirit of UNESCO.”

Last November, Khamenei spelled out his plan for the annihilation of Israel.

Emaunuele Ottolenghi, a senior fellow at the Foundation for Defense of Democracies, explained in May the significance of the Iranian regime’s Holocaust denial.

Given how entrenched and pervasive Holocaust denial and antiSemitism are within the Iranian regime, it is hard to dismiss the possibility that the regime’s principal motivation for embracing this narrative is to provide justification for its recurrence. Holocaust deniers, after all, have long sought to excuse the crime’s perpetrators and shift guilt onto its victims as a prelude to repeating that same crime.

Emaunuele Ottolenghi

[Photo: Ayatullah Khamenei Speeches English / YouTube ] seriously

2016 January, 27 | by TheTower.org Staff | Source: thetower.org "Khamenei Releases Video Denying Holocaust on International Holocaust Remembrance Day"
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Nicholas Winton’s ‘Most Emotional Moment’

Nicholas Winton, who died Wednesday at 106,1)http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/02/world/europe/nicholas-winton-is-dead-at-106-saved-children-from-the-holocaust.html?hp&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&module=second-column-region&region=top-news&WT.nav=top-news went 50 years without telling anyone about how he had rescued 669 children from Nazi-occupied Czechoslovakia.

Even after his anonymity ended in 1988, when his wife’s discovery of an old scrapbook in their attic set off a wave of public recognition, he never fully explained why he did it.

One especially poignant appearance came in 1988 on the BBC program2)http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-33350880 “That’s Life,” when for the first time, dozens of people who owed their lives to him assembled to thank him.

In the video, he dabs tears as a woman hugs him.

Then he is surprised to learn that the dozens of people seated around him were also children he had saved.

By Daniel Victor | July 1, 2015 | Source: nytimes.com "Nicholas Winton’s ‘Most Emotional Moment’ "
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References   [ + ]

1. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/02/world/europe/nicholas-winton-is-dead-at-106-saved-children-from-the-holocaust.html?hp&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&module=second-column-region&region=top-news&WT.nav=top-news
2. http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-33350880

Holocaust ‘hero’ Sir Nicholas Winton dies aged 106.

Sir Nicholas Winton, who organised the rescue of 669 children destined for Nazi concentration camps, has died aged 106.

Sir Nicholas, then a stockbroker, arranged for trains to carry Jewish children out of occupied Prague.

The prime minister described him as a “great man” and the chief rabbi praised his “exceptional courage”.

He died on the anniversary of the departure of a train in 19391)http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-berkshire-30895961 carrying the largest number of children – 241.

His son-in-law Stephen Watson said he died peacefully in his sleep at Wexham Hospital, Slough.

Sir Nicholas brought the children to Britain, battling bureaucracy at both ends, saving them from almost certain death, and then kept quiet about his exploits for a half-century.

He organised a total of eight trains from Prague, with some other forms of transport also set up from Vienna.

The Englishman who saved children from the Holocaust

Nicholas Winton photographed with one of the children he rescued in 1939

Nicholas Winton-01

Nicholas Winton photographed with one of the children he rescued in 1939

» Sir Nicholas was born Nicholas Wertheimer in 1909 to Jewish parents

» By 1938 he was a young stockbroker in London

» He dropped everything to go to Prague to help Jewish refugees fleeing Nazi occupation

» Sir Nicholas organised foster families for Jewish children in Britain, placing adverts in newspapers

» The 669 children travelled on eight trains across four countries

» Sir Nicholas’s team persuaded British custom officials to allow all the children in despite incomplete documentation

Discover how Nicholas Winton pulled-off such a dangerous escape plan

The reluctant hero worked to find British families willing to put up £50 to look after the boys and girls in their homes.

Sir Nicholas was knighted by the Queen in March 2003. His work has been likened to that of the “saviour” of Jewish prisoners Oskar Schindler, however it was a comparison he was not particularly fond of.

The Rotary Club of Maidenhead, of which Sir Nicholas was former president, said his daughter Barbara and two grandchildren were at his side when he died.

As a six-year-old, former Labour MP, Lord Dubs, was one of the children who was put on a train out of Czechoslovakia

He paid an emotional tribute to his rescuer as “just one of those very special human beings”

“The real fact is that he was a man who saved my life and a lot of us who came on the Kindertransport owe him an enormous debt.

“His legacy is that when there is a need for you to do something for your fellow human beings, you have got to do it,” he said.

‘Moral courage’

His son Nick said of his father’s legacy: “It is about encouraging people to make a difference and not waiting for something to be done or waiting for someone else to do it.

“It’s what he tried to tell people in all his speeches and in the book written by my sister.”

‘English Schindler’ Winton was reunited with rescued children on That’s Life in 1988

Prime Minister David Cameron paid tribute to Sir Nicholas, tweeting: “The world has lost a great man. We must never forget Sir Nicholas Winton’s humanity in saving so many children from the Holocaust.”

Daniel Taub, Israel’s ambassador to the UK, said: “He was a hero of our time, having saved 669 Jewish children from the Nazi regime. His legacy, as a point of light in an era of darkness, will forever be remembered”.

Last year, Sir Nicholas was awarded the Order of The White Lion by Czech president Milos Zeman.

Michael Zantovsky, Ambassador of the Czech Republic to the United Kingdom, who was a close friend described him as “a positive man who radiated good”.

“It was incredibly moving to be present at some of the gatherings of him with his so-called children and the children of his children. They all owe their existence to him.”

‘Unfailing courtesy’

Former prime minister Gordon Brown described Sir Nicholas as “a real hero of our times”.

“Anyone who had the privilege of meeting him immediately felt admiration, respect and were in awe of his courage.

“That courage led him to risk his life to save the lives of some of the most vulnerable people. His inspiration will live on,” he said.

Chief Rabbi Ephraim Mirvis praised Sir Nicholas’ “exceptional courage, selflessness and modesty”.

“He lived to see thousands of descendants of those whose lives he saved who were proud to call themselves members of his family, and who were inspired by his example to undertake outstanding charitable, humanitarian and educational initiatives,” he said.

“I knew him to be a gentleman of unfailing old-world courtesy, with a warm heart and a ready self-deprecating wit.”

Rabbi Lord Jonathan Sacks, who was Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth from 1991 to 2013, called Sir Nicholas a “giant of moral courage” and “one of the heroes of our time”.

“Our sages said that saving a life is like saving a universe. Sir Nicholas saved hundreds of universes,” he said.

The Refugee Council tweeted: “Very sad to hear the news of the passing of Sir Nicholas Winton. He was an amazing man who saved many lives.”

1 July 2015 | From the section Berkshire | Original Source: bbc.com "Holocaust 'hero' Sir Nicholas Winton dies aged 106"
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References   [ + ]

1. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-berkshire-30895961

Nicholas Winton, Rescuer of 669 Children From Holocaust, Dies at 106 – The New York Times


A family picture of Nicholas Winton with one of the hundreds of Jewish children whose lives he saved during World War II. Credit Press Association, via Associated Press

Nicholas Winton, a Briton who said nothing for a half-century about his role in organizing the escape of 669 mostly Jewish children from Czechoslovakia on the eve of World War II, a righteous deed like those of Oskar Schindler and Raoul Wallenberg, died on Wednesday in Maidenhead, England. He was 106.

The Rotary Club of Maidenhead,1)http://www.maidenheadrotary.co.uk/news of which Mr. Winton was a former president, announced his death on its website. He lived in Maidenhead, west of London.

It was only after Mr. Winton’s wife found a scrapbook in the attic of their home in 1988 — a dusty record of names, pictures and documents detailing a story of redemption from the Holocaust — that he spoke of his all-but-forgotten work in the deliverance of children who, like the parents who gave them up to save their lives, were destined for Nazi concentration camps and extermination.

For all his ensuing honors and accolades in books and films, Mr. Winton was a reluctant hero, often compared to Schindler, the ethnic German who saved 1,200 Jews by employing them in his enamelware and munitions factories in Poland and Czechoslovakia, and to Wallenberg, the Swedish businessman and diplomat who used illegal passports and legation hideaways to save tens of thousands of Jews in Nazi-occupied Hungary.

Mr. Winton — Sir Nicholas in England since 2003, when he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II — was a London stockbroker in December 1938 when, on an impulse, he canceled a Swiss skiing vacation and flew to Prague at the behest of a friend who was aiding refugees in the Sudetenland, the western region of Czechoslovakia that had just been annexed by Germany.

“Don’t bother to bring your skis,” the friend, Martin Blake, advised in a phone call.

Mr. Winton found vast camps of refugees living in appalling conditions. The pogroms of Kristallnacht, the “Night of Broken Glass,” had recently struck Jewish shops, homes and synagogues in Germany and Austria. War looked inevitable, and escape, especially for children, seemed hopeless, given the restrictions against Jewish immigration in the West.

Britain, however, was an exception. In late 1938, it began a program, called Kindertransport, to admit unaccompanied Jewish children up to age 17 if they had a host family, with the offer of a 50-pound warranty for an eventual return ticket. The Refugee Children’s Movement in Britain sent representatives to Germany and Austria, and 10,000 Jewish children were saved before the war began.

But there was no comparable mass-rescue effort in Czechoslovakia. Mr. Winton created one. It involved dangers, bribes, forgery, secret contacts with the Gestapo, nine railroad trains, an avalanche of paperwork and a lot of money. Nazi agents started following him. In his Prague hotel room, he met terrified parents desperate to get their children to safety, although it meant surrendering them to strangers in a foreign land.

As their numbers grew, a storefront office was opened. Long lines attracted Gestapo attention. Perilous confrontations were resolved with bribes. Eventually he registered more than 900 children, although he had names and details on 5,000. In early 1939, he left two friends, Trevor Chadwick and Bill Barazetti, in charge in Prague and returned to London to find foster homes, raise money and arrange transportation.

He and a few volunteers, including his mother, calling themselves the British Committee for Refugees from Czechoslovakia, Children’s Section, enlisted aid from the Refugee Children’s Movement, had photos of the children printed and appealed for funds and foster homes in newspaper ads and church and synagogue bulletins.

Hundreds of families volunteered to take children, and money trickled in from donors — not enough to cover all the costs, but Mr. Winton made up the difference himself. He also appealed to the Home Office for entry visas, but the response was slow and time was short. “This was a few months before the war broke out,” he recalled. “So we forged the Home Office entry permits.”

Nicholas Winton in 2014. CreditPetr David Josek/Associated Press

In Prague, Mr. Chadwick quietly cultivated the chief of the Gestapo, Karl Bömelburg — they called him “the criminal rat” after his inspector’s rank of kriminalrat — and arranged for forged transit papers and bribes to be passed to key Nazis and Czech railway officials, who threatened to halt trains or seize the children unless they were paid off. The Gestapo chief proved instrumental, clearing the trains and transit papers, Mr. Chadwick said.

Searing Separations

Mr. Winton sent more money, some for bribes and some to cover expenses for children whose parents had been arrested and shot or had fled into hiding, while many of the Czech families sold possessions to pay for their children’s escape. The red tape and paperwork seemed endless.

But on March 14, 1939, it all came together. Hours before Hitler dismembered the Czech provinces of Bohemia and Moravia as a German “Protectorate,” the first 20 children left Prague on a train. Survivors told of searing scenes on the station platform in the final moments before departure as children sobbed and pleaded not to be sent away and parents faced giving up their children.

Mr. Winton and his colleagues later arranged for eight more trains to get the rest of the children out, crossing the Third Reich through Nuremberg and Cologne to the Hook of Holland, then across the North Sea by boat to Harwich, Essex, and on by British rail to the Liverpool Street Station in London. There, he and the host families met the children. Each refugee had a small bag and wore a name tag.

But only seven of the eight trains made it through, the last in early August, bringing the total rescued to 669. About 250 children, the largest group, were on board the last train out, on Sept. 1, 1939. On that day, however, Hitler invaded Poland, all borders controlled by Germany were closed and Mr. Winton’s rescue efforts came to an end.

“Within hours of the announcement, the train disappeared,” he recalled. “None of the 250 children aboard was ever seen again.” All were believed to have perished in concentration camps.

Nearly all the saved children were orphans by war’s end, their parents killed at Auschwitz, Bergen-Belsen or Theresienstadt. After the war, many remained in Britain, but others returned to Czechoslovakia or emigrated to Israel, Australia or the United States. The survivors, many now in their 70s and 80s, still call themselves “Winton’s Children.”

Mr. Winton received the Czech Republic’s highest honor from President Vaclav Havel in 1998.Credit“Nicholas Winton and the Rescued Generation”

A Scrapbook in the Attic

Among them are the film director Karel Reisz, who made “The French Lieutenant’s Woman” (1981), “Isadora” (1968) and “Saturday Night and Sunday Morning” (1960); Alfred, Lord Dubs, who became a member of Parliament; Joe Schlesinger, a Canadian broadcast correspondent; Hugo Marom, a founder of the Israeli Air Force; Vera Gissing, the author of “Pearls of Childhood” (2007) and other books; and Renata Laxová, a geneticist who discovered the Neu-Laxová Syndrome, a congenital abnormality.

Mr. Winton was born Nicholas George Wertheim in London on May 19, 1909, one of three children of Rudolf and Barbara Wertheimer Wertheim. His parents were of German-Jewish origin but converted to Christianity and changed the family name to Winton. His father was a merchant banker, and Nicholas and his siblings, Bobby and Charlotte, grew up in a 20-room mansion in West Hampstead, London. He and Bobby were skilled fencers and late in life established the Winton Cup, a major British competition in the sport.

Nicholas attended Stowe School in Buckingham, was apprenticed in international banking in London and worked at Behrens Bank in Hamburg, Wassermann’s Bank in Berlin and Banque Nationale de Crédit in Paris. He was fluent in German and French when he returned to London in 1931 and became a stockbroker.

He was a Royal Air Force officer in the war and later worked for refugee organizations and the Abbeyfield Society, a charity that assists the elderly. He raised more than £1 million in one fund-raising drive. In 1983, he was made a member of the Order of the British Empire for his charity work.

Nicholas Winton is greeted by a woman who was one of the 669 mostly Jewish children that he helped to escape Nazi-occupied Czechoslovakia in 1939. A Briton, he kept silent about his role in organizing the evacuations for 50 years, until his wife found a scrapbook in the attic.CreditGeoff Caddick/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

“I did not think for one moment that they would be of interest to anyone so long after it happened,” Mr. Winton recalled later.

But he reluctantly agreed to let her explore the matter. She gave the scrapbook to a Holocaust historian. A newspaper article followed. Then a BBC television program featured the story of his rescues, and the publicity went worldwide.

He was showered with encomiums: the Czech Republic’s highest award, honorary citizenship of Prague, an American congressional resolution, letters of appreciation from President George W. Bush, Prime Minister Tony Blair of Britain, former President Ezer Weizman of Israel and people around the world, and a nomination by the Czech Republic for the Nobel Peace Prize. His scrapbook went to Yad Vashem, the Holocaust memorial in Israel. Streets and schools were named for him. Statues went up in Prague and London.

Incredulous at Fame

Why did he do it?

He never really explained, though he offered a bare rationale in an interview with The New York Times in 2001: “One saw the problem there, that a lot of these children were in danger, and you had to get them to what was called a safe haven, and there was no organization to do that. Why did I do it? Why do people do different things? Some people revel in taking risks, and some go through life taking no risks at all.”

Ms. Gissing, in her book “Nicholas Winton and the Rescued Generation: Save One Life, Save the World” (2001, with Muriel Emanuel), said Mr. Winton was incredulous at his fame. “Winton still shakes his head in bewilderment and disbelief when compared with Oskar Schindler and Raoul Wallenberg,” she wrote. “I try to make him realize that his contribution to the human race is immeasurable.”

The rescues were explored in three films by the Slovak director Matej Minác: the fictionalized “All My Loved Ones” (1999); a documentary, “The Power of Good: Nicholas Winton” (2002); and “Nicky’s Family” (2011), and in Mr. Minác’s book, “Nicholas Winton’s Lottery of Life” (2007).

On Sept. 1, 2009, 70 years after the onset of the war halted the rescue operations, a special train with a locomotive and carriages from the 1930s left Prague to re-create the perilous 1939 journeys. On board were some of the original Winton’s Children and many of their descendants, whose numbers now exceed 6,000.

They were met at Liverpool Street Station by Mr. Winton, who had recently turned 100.

Correction: July 2, 2015
An earlier version of this obituary referred incorrectly to the honor bestowed on Mr. Winton in 1983. He was made a member of the Order of the British Empire; he did not “receive” the Order of the British Empire.
July 1, 2015 | By Robert D. McFadden | Original Source: nytimes.com "Nicholas Winton, Rescuer of 669 Children From Holocaust, Dies at 106."
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References   [ + ]

1. http://www.maidenheadrotary.co.uk/news

TR: 70 years… please read this! 

Israel: Holocaust (01) feature

In MEMORIAM – 70 YEARS LATER

Please read the little cartoon carefully – it is powerful. Then read the comments at the end.

I’m doing my small part by forwarding this message. I hope you’ll consider doing the same.

In Memorial

Descrição: cid:X.MA1.1419186710@aol.com

It is now 70 years after the Second World War in Europe ended. This e-mail is being sent as a memorial chain, in memory of the six million Jews, 20 million Russians, 10 Million Christians and 1,900 Catholic priests who were murdered, massacred, raped, burned, starved and humiliated.

Now, more than ever, it’s imperative to make sure the world never forgets, because there are others who would like to do it again.

Can you say ” ISIS “?

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Descendants of Holocaust Survivors Have Altered Stress Hormones

Facts feature (06)

Parents’ traumatic experience may hamper their offspring’s ability to bounce back from trauma

A person’s experience as a child or teenager can have a profound impact on their future children’s lives, new work is showing. Rachel Yehuda, a researcher in the growing field of epigenetics and the intergenerational effects of trauma, and her colleagues have long studied mass trauma survivors and their offspring. Their latest results reveal that descendants of people who survived the Holocaust have different stress hormone profiles than their peers, perhaps predisposing them to anxiety disorders.

Holocaust-Survivors-02By Tori Rodriguez
Yehuda’s team at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and the James J. Peters Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Bronx, N.Y., and others had previously established that survivors of the Holocaust have altered levels of circulating stress hormones compared with other Jewish adults of the same age. Survivors have lower levels of cortisol, a hormone that helps the body return to normal after trauma; those who suffered post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have even lower levels.

It is not completely clear why survivors produce less cortisol, but Yehuda’s team recently found that survivors also have low levels of an enzyme that breaks down cortisol. The adaptation makes sense: reducing enzyme activity keeps more free cortisol in the body, which allows the liver and kidneys to maximize stores of glucose and metabolic fuels—an optimal response to prolonged starvation and other threats. The younger the survivors were during World War II, the less of the enzyme they have as adults. This finding echoes the results of many other human epigenetic studies that show that the effects of certain experiences during childhood and adolescence are especially enduring in individuals and sometimes even across generations (above right).

Most recently, a new study looked at the descendants of the Holocaust survivors. Like their parents, many have low levels of cortisol, particularly if their mothers had PTSD. Yet unlike their parents, they have higher than normal levels of the cortisol-busting enzyme. Yehuda and her colleagues theorize that this adaptation happened in utero. The enzyme is usually present in high levels in the placenta to protect the fetus from the mother’s circulating cortisol. If pregnant survivors had low levels of the enzyme in the placenta, a greater amount of cortisol could make its way to the fetus, which would then develop high levels of the enzyme to protect itself.

Epigenetic changes often serve to biologically prepare offspring for an environment similar to that of the parents, Yehuda explains. In this case, however, the needs of the fetus seem to have trumped that goal. With low levels of cortisol and high levels of the enzyme that breaks it down, many descendants of Holocaust survivors would be ill adapted to survive starvation themselves. In fact, that stress hormone profile might make them more susceptible to PTSD (below, yellow); previous studies have indeed suggested that the offspring of Holocaust survivors are more vulnerable to the effects of stress and are more likely to experience symptoms of PTSD. These descendants may also be at risk for age-related metabolic syndromes, including obesity, hypertension and insulin resistance, particularly in an environment of plenty.

Yet it is still too early in our investigation into the epigenetics of this complex stress-response system to know for sure whether these molecular changes indicate any real-world risks or benefits. “If you are looking for it all to be logical and fall into place perfectly, it isn’t going to yet,” Yehuda says. “We are just at the beginning of understanding this.”

Holocaust-Survivors

A variety of studies, many using long-term medical records from large populations, have found that certain experiences affect future descendants’ health risks. —Victoria Stern Credit: ISTOCKPHOTO

Feb 12, 2015 |By Tori Rodriguez | Original Source: scientificamerican.com "Descendants of Holocaust Survivors Have Altered Stress Hormones - Scientific American."
Scientific American Mind Volume 26, Issue 2
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Nazi Death Camps

Israel: Holocaust (01) feature

[4.C.M.] Yet with all this evidence we have those who want to believe ideologies which such truths could not accommodate are compelled to choose a position of denial and live in a delusional state which bares no resemblance to normality within core standards of decent human conduct: 

List of Major Camps 

CAMP
LOCALE
TYPE
USAGE
CLOSURE
PRESENT
Auschwitz-Birkenau
Poland
Annihilation;
Forced Labor
April 1940-
January 1945
Liberation
(USSR)
Preserved (Museum)
Belzec
Poland
Annihilation
March 1942-
June 1943
Liquidation
Monument
Bergen-Belsen
Germany
Holding Center
April 1943-
April 1945
Liberation
(UK)
Graveyard
Buchenwald
Germany
Forced Labor
July 1937-
April 1945
Liberation
(USA)
Preserved (Museum)
Chelmno
Poland
Annihilation
December 1944-
April 1943;
April 1944-
January 1945
Liquidation
Monument
Dachau
Germany
Forced Labor
March 1933-
April 1945
Liberation
(USA)
Preserved (Museum)
Dora-Mittelbau
Germany
Forced Labor
September 1943-
April 1945
Liberation
(USA)
Memorial Sculpture
Flossenburg
Germany
Forced Labor
May 1938-
April 1945
Liberation
(USA)
Monument
Gross-Rosen
Poland
Forced Labor
August 1940-
February 1945
Liberation
(USSR)
Preserved (Museum)
Janowska
Ukraine
Annihilation;
Forced Labor
September 1941-
November 1943
Liquidation
Not Maintained
Kaiserwald
Latvia
Forced Labor
March 1943-
September 1944
Liquidation
Not Maintained
Majdanek
Poland
Annihilation
July 1941-
July 1944
Liberation
(USSR)
Preserved (Museum)
Mauthausen
Austria
Forced Labor
August 1938-
May 1945
Liberation
(USA)
Monument
Natzweiler-Struthof
France
Forced Labor
May 1941-
September 1944
Liquidation
Preserved
Neuengamme
Germany
Forced Labor
June 1940-
May 1945
Liberation
(UK)
Monument (Prison)
Oranienburg
Germany
Holding Center
March 1933-
March 1935
Liquidation
Not Maintained
Plaszow
Poland
Forced Labor
December 1942-
January 1945
Liquidation
Not Maintained
Ravensbruck
Germany
Forced Labor
May 1939-
April 1945
Liberation
(USSR)
Monument
Sachsenhausen
Germany
Forced Labor

July 1936-
April 1945

Liberation
(USSR)
Preserved (Museum)
Sobibor
Poland
Annihilation
May 1942-
October 1943
Liquidation
Monument
Stutthof
Poland
Forced Labor
September 1939-
May 1945
Liberation
(USSR)
Preserved (Museum)
Terezin
Czech Republic
Holding Center/Transit
November 1941-
May 1945
Liberation
(USSR)
Monument
Treblinka
Poland
Annihilation
July 1942-
November 1943
Liquidation
Monument
Westerbork
Netherlands
Transit
October 1939-
April 1945
Liberation
(Canada)
Monument

 

Nazi Extermination Camps in Poland

 view-image_Auschwitz
 view-image_Belzec
 view-image_Chelmno
 view-image_Majdanek

 

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